0 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z
0 Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
200 m - Track sprint time trial with a flying start used to seed riders for the match sprint.   Biking      
26 inch - The most common mountain bike wheel size. When used on road bikes, it is known as 650c.   Biking      
27 inch - A wheel size seen commonly on older road bikes. Not typically used on modern bike models. (See 700c)   Biking      
3000 m - Distance of women’s and junior’s pursuit on the track.   Biking      
3-cross - The most common spoke lacing pattern. Refers to the number of times each spoke crosses over the other spokes in the wheel.   Biking      
40 Km - Common time trial distance. Typically run on an out and back course.   Biking      
4000 m - The distance of the men’s individual pursuit and team pursuit events on the track. (See Pursuit)   Biking      
4-Cross - A mountain bike gravity event where four riders start at the same time and race on a course with banked turns, jumps and other obstacles. (See Mountain Cross)   Biking      
500 m - A track time trial from a standing start that covers 500 meters. The women's equivalent of the kilometer.   Biking      
650c - Wheel size commonly used on smaller bicycles (particularly women's bikes). Same size as typical 26-inch mountain bike wheel.   Biking      
700c - Standard wheel size for road bikes.   Biking      
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A Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Abandon - When a rider quits during a race.   Biking      
Abdomen - The segmented rear section of an insects's body.     Fishing    
ABS Sidewall - Industry term for a type of edge construction on skis and snowboards using high quality ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) plastic. Skiing        
Accordion - The accordion happens when a large pack of riders enter a tight turn. When the lead riders have passed through, the end of the pack has just slowed down. The riders at the back then have to rapidly accelerate to catch back up, hence the accordion effect.   Biking      
Action - An elusive, but important characteristic of fly rods. Rods are said to have fast or slow action. Fast action rods are generally stiffer overall, but bend more at the tip, generating higher line speeds longer casts, especially into the wind. Slow action rods, appear to flex their entire length, giving the sense of a more compliant feel.   Fishing
Adipose Fin - A small, fatty fin between the dorsal fin and the tail fin.   Fishing  
Adult - The winged stage of aquatic insects; reproductive stage.   Fishing  
Aero Bars - Handlebar extensions with elbow cups that allow a biker to ride with elbows on the bars and hands over the front wheel; allows the rider to adopt a more aerodynamic position, like a downhill skier’s tuck. Commonly used on road bikes.)   Biking      
Aero Brake Levers - Brake levers that minimize aerodynamic drag. Used in time trials attached to the ends of a base bar.   Biking      
Aerobic - Metabolic system in the body that relies principally on oxygen to metabolize fats and sugar stored (in the liver and muscles) and free (in the bloodstream) to produce energy. Mostly used during endurance events and longer duration exercise.   Biking      
Aerodynamic Drag - The slowing effect created as a rider and bicycle move through the air. (See Time Trial)   Biking      
Aerodynamic - A design of cycling equipment or a riding position that reduces wind resistance; aero for short.   Biking      
AFTM - The Association of Fishing Tackle Makers (UK-based organization).   Fishing    
AFTMA - The American Fishing Tackle Manufactures Association. Its activities include setting technical standards for fishing tackle.   Fishing    
Agrupado - In racing, the peloton riding in one or more groups. Of Spanish origin.   Biking      
Albright Knot - A commonly-used knot used for tying the backing to the fly line.   Fishing    
Alevin - A recently hatched salmon or trout. (See Grilse, Parr and Smolt)   Fishing    
Algae - Any number of simple plants that contain chlorophyll but lack true roots, stems and leaves.   Fishing    
All Terrain Bicycle (ATB) - An alternative name for a mountain bike.   Biking      
Allen Key or Wrench - Hexagonal-shaped wrenches that range from 1.5 mm to 10 mm. A certain sized allen key secures most bolts on a bicycle. (See Hex Wrench)   Biking      
All-Mountain Ski - A large percentage of alpine skis fall into this category. All-Mountain skis are designed to perform in all types of snow conditions and at most speeds. Other names for this style of ski include Mid-Fat skis, All-Purpose skis, and the One-ski Quiver.  Skiing      
Alpine Camber - Ski curvature characterized by a subtle, gradual arch in the middle, without a defined wax pocket. Alpine camber distributes skier weight more evenly over the entire ski base, which makes it easier to carve smooth turns. Skate skis have alpine camber; downhill skis (alpine, randonee and telemark) traditionally have had alpine camber, but many now have rocker camber or reverse camber.)       Cross-Country Skiing
Alpine Skiing - Downhill skiing, typically assisted with an uphill chairlift at a ski resort (as opposed to Nordic skiing). Common gear includes stiff plastic boots, fixed-heel bindings and metal-edged skis.  Skiing      
Alpine Touring (AT) - A style of backcountry skiing, also called randonee or ski mountaineering, in which free-heel striding and climbing skins are used for ascending slopes, and fixed-heel, parallel turns are used for the descents. Gear is similar to that for alpine skiing, but AT bindings switch between free-heel and fixed-heel modes. Alpine skiing and alpine touring boots and bindings are not compatible. Skiing      
Americaine - French term for the Madison. Skiing        
Amphidromous Fish - Fish that regularly migrate between saltwater and freshwater.   Fishing    
Anadromous Fish - Fish that spend most of their lives in saltwater but ascend freshwater rivers to spawn. Salmon is an example of an anadromous fish.   Fishing    
Anaerobic - The metabolic system that produces energy principally without oxygen, using sugar as fuel. Involved mostly in short, high-intensity efforts.   Biking      
Anaerobic Threshold - Originally used to describe the transition point from sustainable to unsustainable exercise when the body is moving from aerobic to anaerobic systems. The preferred term in cycling is now functional threshold.   Biking      
Anaerobic - Exercise above the intensity at which the body’s need for oxygen can be met. This intensity can be sustained only briefly.   Biking      
Anal Fin - The fin behind the anus of a fish.   Fishing    
Angel Poop - The lightest, deepest powder snow. Skiing      
Angler - A person who seeks to catch fish with a hook (an "angle"), usually fixed to the end of a line.   Fishing    
Angulation - The bending of the knees into a ski slope to set an edge. The hips must be bent in order to keep the weight in the desired position. With little or no edge set, the knees will be bent directly over the skis. With maximum edge set, they will bend in towards the slope. Skiing      
Annelid - An aquatic worm which is a common food for trout and other fish.   Fishing    
Anodized - A finish for metals that deposits a thin layer of another compound on the surface to strengthen and protect it from oxidation. The anodized finish typically adds color to a final metal product.   Biking      
Anticipation - The preparation before a turn using the hands, eyes, soles of the feet, and longitudinal weight shift. When learning new technique it can also mean a pole plant, and is more often than not accompanied by angulation. Skiing      
Anti-Reverse - A feature of fly reels where the spool handle does not turn as line is pulled out from the reel.   Fishing    
Antron - A synthetic yarn material made of long, sparkly fibers used for many aspects of fly tying including wrapped bodies, spent wings, and trailing shucks. Is also used for dubbing material   Fishing    
Apex - The sharpest part of a turn where the transition from entering to exiting takes place.   Biking      
Apres Ski - A celebration event that takes place at the end of the ski day, typically involving food, drink and stories from the day on the slopes. The location of apres ski varies but is commonly executed at a bar, in a jacuzzi or around a fireplace. Skiing      
Arbor - The center part of a fly reel where line and backing (first) is wound.   Fishing    
Arbor knot - A knot used for tying backing to the arbor of the fly reel.   Fishing    
Arc-En-Ciel - In cycling, the rainbow colors of the world champion’s jersey. Of French origin.   Biking      
Arcobaleno - In cycling, the rainbow colors of the world champion’s jersey. Of Italian origin.   Biking      
Arm Warmers - Removable fabric sleeves that allow a rider to easily cover up or strip down if weather changes.   Biking      
Arresting - A means of stopping or slowing while descending a slope on skis. The skier uses their poles by sticking them into the snow and then putting their body weight against the poles. This is usually used when the skier is facing straight down the slope.       Cross-Country Skiing
Arrivee - Finish line. Of French origin.   Biking      
Articular - The rear bone of the lower jaw of a fish.   Fishing    
Attack - A sudden acceleration in a race meant to separate a rider from the peloton. It also refers to the resulting rider or group of riders that succeed in distancing themselves. A rider is said to be “on the attack” or in the “attack”. (See Breakaway)   Biking      
Attack - A sudden acceleration to move ahead of another rider or group of riders   Biking      
Attractor - A style or variety of fly that is effective in eliciting strikes, but has few apparent characteristics of a natural food item. Often an attractor is flashy and bigger than life.   Fishing    
Au bloc - French term for riding at the limit of one's abilities. (See On the Rivet)   Biking      
Audax - A special touring event with required checkpoints. More formally known as audax cycling. Sometimes uses as a synonym for randonneur.   Biking      
Audio Helmet - A helmet wired with speakers that allows you to listen to music while skiing or snowboarding. Skiing      
Autobus - In stage racing, a group of slow climbers left behind on a mountain, riding together to finish within the established time limit. Of French origin. (See Grupetto or Laughing Group)   Biking      
Avalament - From the French word "avaler," meaning "to swallow." In skiing, it references the absorption of a bump by lifting the legs. E.g., there is angulation but it comes from lifting the legs rather than lowering the body. Skiing      
Avalanche Beacon - A safety device worn by skiers, snowboarders, and others in case an avalanche traps them. The beacon transmits a signal (typically at the international standard frequency of 457khz) that rescuers can use to locate a buried person. An essential item for anyone venturing into the backcountry. Skiing      
Avalanche Control - The triggering of avalanches through artificial means, including controlled explosions, to make slopes safe for skiers. The most dangerous task faced by Ski Patrol. Skiing      
Avalanche - Something that will kill you unless you are careful. With the introduction to shorter skis allowing easier off-piste skiing, and the forecast for heavier snowfalls as the world warms up, the danger of avalanches cannot be over stressed. Anyone who skis off-piste should only do so if they know about the avalanche risks at any given time in the area they are skiing in, or is going with someone who does. A public notice stating that the overall avalanche risk in the resort is low, does not mean that a particular area is safe and checks should always be made if in doubt. Skiing      
Azurri - Members of the Italian national squad.   Biking      

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B Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
BS - The abbreviation for breaking strain.     Fishing    
Back Cast - The casting of line in a direction opposite to the direction the fly is intended to go. The backward counterpart of the forward cast which acts to create a bending action on the fly rod, setting up the conditions to generate the forward cast and present the fly.     Fishing    
Backcountry Skiing - Any kind of skiing done away from developed land, open roads or lift-assisted ski resorts. It may refer to cross-country skiing, or to randonee or telemark skiing, in these areas.         Cross-Country Skiing
Backcountry - Any area outside of resort boundaries or elsewhere that is not patrolled or cleared of avalanche dangers. This type of skiing and snowboarding is done at your own risk, thus the backcountry is a place for knowledgeable experts only. Skiing        
Backing Line - Nylon or dacron line tied between the flyline and the reel to act as additional line if a longer length than the flyline is required as a reserve to play a big fish.     Fishing    
Backing - The first segment of line on a reel, usually braided and used to build up the arbor and to offer additional distance for a strong fish to pull out line. An unusually strong fish will take you "into your backing".     Fishing    
Badger Hackle - A hackle having a black center and white outer fibers, sometimes tipped with black.     Fishing    
Badger - A feather of a specially-bred or chosen chicken that has colors which change from brown-black to black at the center of the quill to ginger or white on the outer edges.     Fishing    
Baetis - Widely distributed genus of mayflies typically found in sizes 16 to 22.     Fishing    
Bag Limit - The maximum permissible number or weight of fish that can be taken from particular water. Always check local regulations before fishing.     Fishing    
Bail - To jump off a bike before crashing; to quit a ride or race before finishing. Also known as "abaondon."   Biking      
Bailiff - An agent of the land owner who enforces fishing rights and regulations in a stretch of water. They can, in some cases, arrest poachers, seize their tackle equipment and catch. They can also prosecute them and take them to court.     Fishing    
Baiting Needle - A long needle used for mounting dead fish and other large baits onto terminal tackle.     Fishing    
Balaclava - A hooded facemask worn to cover the head and neck and prevent heat loss; typically worn under a hat or helmet. A key extra whenever you are caught skiing a lift in fierce, driving wind or snow. Skiing        
Balai - The last vehicle in a race caravan for cyclists who abandon on course. Of French origin.   Biking      
Balance - The ability to keep a person's weight in the desired position. Balance is acquired by experience and is more readily acquired by very small children or people with a low center of gravity. Balance can be improved by being fit, having good eyesight, and learning to feel snow conditions through the soles of the feet. Longitudinal balance refers to movement of the centre of weight between the front and back of both skis, while latitudinal balance refers to weight variations between and across the skis. Skiing        
Balustrade - The outer limit of a cycle track, consisting of a solid, closed low wall and a railing.   Biking      
Bamboo - The oldest rod-building material still in use; the classic fly rod material.     Fishing    
Banana Seat – A bike seat that looks like a banana. Chopper-style “high-rise” bikes of the 60s and 70s featured these long curved seats, made extraordinarily popular by Schwinn's Sting-Ray bicycle.   Biking      
Banks - The right bank of a river is on your right when you are facing downstream, and the left bank is on the left.     Fishing    
Bar End Shifters - Shifters designed to fit into the ends of handlebars or aero bars. Allows riders to shift directly from the end of the bars without removing their hands.   Biking      
Bar Ends - Extensions for mountain bike handlebars that mount on the ends of the bars and provide an additional handhold perpendicular to the standard flat bar. Used often to gain leverage on uphill climbs.   Biking      
Barb - The backward facing projection cut into a hook near the point to reduce the chances of hooked fish escaping.     Fishing    
Barbless Hooks - Hooks without the backward facing projection cut into a hook near the point. They are easier to get out of the fish and do not cause as much injury. Ideal for catch and release fishing.     Fishing    
Barbless - Barbless hooks are either manufactured without a barb or the barb is squeezed down. This feature makes it easier to remove a hook and minimizes the handling and potential damage of a fish you may want to release.     Fishing    
Baroudeur - A cyclist capable of high speeds on flat and rolling roads and in time trials. Of French origin. (See Baroudeur-Rouleur)   Biking      
Baroudeur-Rouleur - A common word used to describe cyclists who can ride all day over rolling parcours. Baroudeur is French for "fighter", meaning one who makes a valiant last stand, so a baroudeur-rouleur is a cyclist brave enough to go on a suicidal solo effort.   Biking      
Barrel Adjuster - A device that screws into the cable stop of a bicycle frame or derailleur that allows a rider to adjust cable tension, thereby adjusting the shifting performance.   Biking      
Barrel Knot - (See Blood Knot)     Fishing    
Barriers - Obstacles in a cyclocross race that force riders to dismount and jump over them while carrying their bikes.   Biking      
Base Bars - A type of handlebar used only in time trial events with forward-facing handholds perpendicular to the bar itself and spaces for mounting.   Biking      
Base Miles/Training - A conditioning period used to develop a cyclist's basic aerobic fitness. Typically the off season is used for base training.   Biking      
Base - Used to describe the under side of a ski or snowboard, the main area at the bottom of a ski resort, or the overall depth of snow. Definition of this term is dependent on the context it is being used for. Skiing        
Baseplate - The bottom portion of a ski or snowboard binding. Of vital importance as this is the portion of binding in direct contact with ski or snowboard and therefore transfers all movement. Typically made with high-end plastics for both flexibility and strength. Skiing        
Basin - A depression in the Earth's surface; the drainage basin of a river system.     Fishing    
Basket - A plastic foot near the end of a ski pole shaft that provides a pushing platform for cross-country skiing or flotation in deep snow for powder skiing. The size of a basket is determined by the type of snow conditions. Racing poles feature smaller, lighter baskets than touring poles.         Cross-Country Skiing
Bass Bag - A canvas or waterproof bag for carrying your catch home in.     Fishing    
Bass Bug - A name used to describe a large number of surface bass flies usually tied with hollow hair (such as deer hair).     Fishing    
Bass Bug Taper - A special weight forward floating fly line with a short front taper so that the generally wind-resistant bass bugs can turn over. (See Weight Forward or Turn Over)     Fishing    
BCF - Acronym for British Cycling Federation.   Biking      
Bead - The edge of a bike tire that fits into the rim.   Biking      
Bead Head - A metal bead that simulates the thorax on a nymph or wet fly and adds weight to the fly. Typically gold or silver is used, but any color can be used. Often a bright color such as red can stimulate a fish into biting. In the UK they are known as Gold heads.     Fishing    
Beat - A term used to describe an area of waterside bank on either a river or stillwater lake that is allocated to one or more fishermen for their exclusive use over a time period.     Fishing    
Beef It - To fall or crash.   Biking      
Bell - The last lap of a race. A bell is rung to signify the final lap.   Biking      
Belly Boat - A one-person, non-motorized watercraft with a seat across the bottom on which the fly fisher sits. Feet are in the water and scuba fins are used to move the tube around. This type of fishing boat is very popular with warmwater fly fishers and with individuals who fish high mountain lakes. (See Kick Boat)     Fishing    
Belly - A tapered fly line has several components, with a fairly sharply tapered tip at the fly end. The middle portion of the line is called the belly.     Fishing    
Benthic - A term describing anything living at or near the bottom of a lake or the sea.     Fishing    
Berm - A term for a snowbank, often used to provide stability on the outside of a turn. Skiing        
Biathlon - An Olympic and World Cup event involving cross-country skiing and marksmanship. Participants (carrying .22-caliber rifles on their backs) ski predetermined interval distances with stops at a shooting range for both prone and standing attempts at targets. In some races, penalty loops are skied for missed targets, and in other events time is simply added.         Cross-Country Skiing
Bib Shorts - Cycling shorts that have lightweight fabric suspenders sewn into them.   Biking      
Bidon - French term for a water bottle.   Biking      
Biff - To fall or crash.   Biking      
Big Gear - A large gear ratio, typically a large chainring and small cog. A big gear makes it harder to pedal. For example, 53x12. (See High Gear or Upshift)   Biking      
Big Ring - The largest chainring; e.g., a cyclist big rings a hill by climbing while in the largest chainring.   Biking      
Big Ringing It - A term used to describe when a cyclist has his chain on the larger of the two front chainrings, allowing a cyclist to pedal at maximum speeds. Big ringing it is most often used on rolling terrain.   Biking      
Bike Handling - The aggregation of skills that enables a bicycle rider to navigate successfully through the various technical challenges posed by the sport.   Biking      
Bimini Twist - A specific series of knots and twists in a leader which acts as a springy shock absorber in the line, usually used when fishing for large salt water fish.     Fishing    
Binding Plate - (See Baseplate) Skiing        
Binding - A piece of gear that connects a ski boot/snowboard boot to the ski/snowboard. In the event of a fall, a skier can release the ski by twisting out of the binding. A snowboarder does not have this advantage. Skiing        
Biot - The short, thick barbs from the leading edge of the first flight feather typically from a goose or a duck. Used to simulate tails, legs, antennae and other parts. Can be found dyed in many different colors.     Fishing    
Bit and Bit - When cyclists take turns riding in front of the pack.   Biking      
Bi-Visible - A fly with both light and dark colored hackles to give good visibility in both light and shaded water.     Fishing    
Black Diamond - An expert trail denoted on trail maps and signs by a black diamond. The trail may or may not be groomed, and can vary from the merely tricky to insanely difficult. A double black diamond indicates the steepest, most difficult runs at a resort. Skiing        
Blank - Fiberglass and graphic fly rods (which also usually contain fiberglass) are produced by wrapping sheets of graphite and fiberglass around a carefully tapered steel rod (called a mandrel). The hollow rod that results from this process is called a blank. It has no guides, ferrules or reel seat.     Fishing    
Block - To slow or disrupt the progress of another cyclist or to disrupt the chase of a breakaway. Also, a cassette or multi-speed freewheel.          
Blood Glucose - A sugar. Glucose is the only fuel that can be used by the brain.   Biking      
Blood Knot - The most widely used knot for tying two pieces of monofilament with similar diameters together; the best knot for construction of a knotted tapered leader; also called the barrel knot.     Fishing    
Blow up - When you can’t keep up your effort and have to slow down significantly. For example, when trying to bridge to a breakaway, you would blow up if you started off too hard. Also shortened to just "blow": "He totally blew on that climb." See popped.   Biking      
Blow Up - To be overcome with fatigue; unable to continue at the previously-set pace.   Biking      
Blue Dun Hackle - A slate-blue or gray hackle.     Fishing    
Blue Square - An intermediate trail denoted on trail maps and signs by a blue square. Usually groomed and often the most popular runs. Note: At European resorts, a blue run is actually a beginner trail and the color red is used to indicate an intermediate skill level. Skiing        
BMX – Acronym for bicycle motocross. Originally introduced as motorcycle-style, off-roading bikes for kids, the BMX took hold of the American market in the late 70s, and continues to be a popular sport involving closed dirt tracks, obstacles and stunts. The BMX bike grew in popularity as a result of the Schwinn Sting-Ray, and it was largely responsible for the birth of the mountain bike.   Biking      
Boarding - Snowboarding Skiing        
Bobbin - A special tool for holding a spool of thread while tying a fly. The tread is dispensed with a controlled tension.     Fishing    
Bodkin - A bodkin is a tool best described as a needle with a handle. It can be easily made from a piece of wooden dowling and a needle. It is used in fly tying used to deposit cement or lacquer to a fly.     Fishing    
Body - The main part of the fly that covers the shank.     Fishing    
Body Position - The direction a skier is facing at any given moment in relation to his skis, and refers to his upper body above the hips. Skiing        
Boiler Plate - Churned-up, melted snow that has refrozen. Subjectively the most appalling snow to ski on. Try to avoid at all costs. Skiing        
Boing, Boing-Boing - A bike with front and/or rear suspension.   Biking      
Bolt Circle Diameter - The diameter of the circle formed by the chainring bolts. Size varies depending upon the cranks' intended application. The standard road bolt circle diameter is 130mm (135mm for Campy) and 144mm for track.   Biking      
Bomber - A person who skis or snowboards too fast or out of control. Skiing        
Bonefish Flies - (See Inverted Hook Bonefish Patterns)     Fishing    
Bonk - To exhaust the body's supply of carbohydrate, resulting in a sudden and dramatic reduction in performance. A state of total exhaustion caused by lack of sufficient food.   Biking      
Bonus Sprints - On each stage, race organizers designate several locations along the route where bonus points are given to the first three riders that cross the line. These sprints create a "race within a race" during each stage.   Biking      
Boot - A piece of strong and thin material inserted into a damaged or cut tire to prevent the inner tube from bulging through the hole and blowing up. A typical boot is a dollar bill or an energy bar wrapper.   Biking      
Bootboard - The platform inside a boot shell that the liner sits atop. Skiing        
Booties - Shoe covers that act like gloves for the feet in cold or wet weather, usually made of neoprene. (See Shoe Covers)   Biking      
Bosses - The threaded mounts on the frame for water bottle cages, shifter guides, racks or fenders.   Biking      
Bottle Cage - A bracket where a water bottle can be kept on a bicycle frame.   Biking      
Bottom Bracket - The bearings where the crankset spindle runs through. Also, the part of a bicycle frame (known as the bottom bracket shell) that holds the bottom bracket bearings.   Biking      
Bottom Pull - A type of front derailleur activated from the underside for a bicycle with cables routed under the bottom bracket.   Biking      
Bowfishing - Fishing with a bow and arrow. It is permitted on many American waters, and the quarry is usually 'trash' fish such as carp that are competing with more highly prized species such as bass. The arrow is tied to the end of a line and the reel is mounted on the bow. (It is strange that one countries 'trash fish' is another countries highly prized quarry.)     Fishing    
Bowl - A large mountain basin, characteristically free of trees and tailor-made for great swooping turns or steep, speedy dives. Skiing        
Box Section Rim - A standard rim with a box-shaped cross section. Typically not more than 20mm deep.   Biking      
Box - A ploy where one cyclist rides just behind and to one side of another cyclist who is usually a teammate, so a third rider can not pass without having to swing wide around them.   Biking      
Boxed (In) - To be trapped in a group of cyclists unable to move forward or sideway.   Biking      
Boxing Match - When two riders exchange blows.   Biking      
BPM: Abbreviation for beats per minute; in reference to heart rate.   Biking      
Brackish Water - Water that is slightly salty.     Fishing    
Braided Loop Connector - A way of putting an in-line loop at the end of your fly line so as to use the loop on the leader to do a loop-to-loop connection between the leader and the fly line. The braided loop connector works like the so-called Chinese finger torture.     Fishing    
Brain Bucket - Slang term for a helmet. Skiing        
Brake Pads - Small rubber blocks inserted into brakes that create friction when the brakes are squeezed against the rim. For disc brakes, the pads are typically metal inserts that contact the disc rotor.   Biking      
Brake/Shift Levers - Brake levers that have an integrated gear shifting mechanism.   Biking      
Braze-On – Accessories permanently attached to the frame like cable stops, shift lever bosses, water bottle bosses and pump pegs. Many braze-ons are glued or welded today, but these pieces were originally affixed by brazing.   Biking      
Brazing – The act of joining a tube and a lug by melting another metal (usually silver or brass) with a lower melting point at the junction. The result is a significantly lower weight frame. This technology became widespread during the 1970s American bicycle boom.   Biking      
Break, Breakaway - A rider or group of riders that has escaped the pack in an effort to build a lead.   Biking      
Breakable Crust - A light layer of frozen snow covering soft snow. These conditions make for poor skiing. Skiing        
Breaking Strength - The amount of effort required to break a single strand of unknotted monofilament or braided line, usually stated in pounds (example: 6 lb. test).     Fishing    
Breakoff - A term of defeat and excitement for a fly angler describing the event of a hooked fish breaking your tippet or leader. Usually a break off results from an unusually strong or big fish, an undersized tippet or leader, or a poorly tied knot.     Fishing    
Breathe Your Ears - The act of breathing so hard you feel like you’re breathing your ears.   Biking      
Brevet - A long-distance event used to qualifying riders for major randonnees such as Paris-Brest-Paris and Boston-Montreal-Boston. The typical brevet series has rides of 200, 300, 400 and 600 km. Pronounced "brevay."   Biking      
Bridge the Gap - To ride across the distance between groups. Also referred to simply as bridging.   Biking      
Brodie - A maneuver on a mountain bike that involves locking up the rear brake, which forces the rear end to skid or slide sideways making a sharp turn. Works best on dirt. Of Australian origin.   Biking      
Broom Wagon - The last vehicle in a race caravan that sweeps the course and picks up dropped riders. Known as "voiture balai" in French.   Biking      
B-Tension Screw - A screw on the backside of most rear derailleurs that controls how far away the derailleur sits from the cassette.   Biking      
Bucktail - The hair found on the tail of the Eastern whitetail deer, used in the tying of many types of flies; can be dyed any color, or used natural. Also, a type of minnow simulating fly, usually constructed of bucktail.     Fishing    
Bulk Shot - A number of split shots grouped together on a line concentrating weight at a particular point.     Fishing    
Bullet Head Tool - A tool with a plate with several holes which can be pushed over the eye of a hook to arrange material in a bullet pattern. The material is first tied in facing forwards beyond the eye symmetrically around the shank, and then pushed backwards by the tool to form the distinctive bullet shape.     Fishing    
Bullhorn Bars - (See Base Bars)   Biking      
Bum Bag - An British term for a fanny bag Note: the word "bum" in British-English means "bottom" and is not a term for a vagrant.     Fishing    
Bumps - (See Moguls) Skiing        
Bunch - A main group of cyclists. (See Field, Pack or Peloton)   Biking      
Bunch Sprint - The sprint for the finish line from a large group. Can be the main peloton sprinting for the win or the remaining riders in the peloton sprinting after a breakaway already crossed the line. (See Field Sprint)   Biking      
Bunny Hop - A way to ride over obstacles such as rocks or logs in which both wheels leave the ground without dismounting.   Biking      
Bunny Slope - An easy and flat area for beginners. This area is almost always found near the base area, as this is the first lesson stop for a never-ever. Skiing        
Butt Pad - A leather or rubber pad strapped around the waist, into which the end (butt) of a rod is placed so greater leverage can be exerted when fighting large powerful fish. Also known as a rod socket.     Fishing    
Butt Section - The thicker end of a tapered leader that is tied to the fly line.     Fishing    
Butting - Frame tubes where the tubes are thicker at high stress points (such as at a weld) and thinner at lower stress points (as in the middle of the tube).   Biking      
Buzzer - The common term used to describe Chronomid flies, midges and gnats that hover over the surface of all water.     Fishing    

 

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C Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
CO2 Cartridge - Steel cylinders filled with pressurized carbon dioxide that can be screw onto a tube's valve allowing for quick inflation of a repaired flat tire.   Biking      
Cable Car - This moving vessel consists of cabins, suspended on cables, that take skiers to the top of the mountain. (See Tram) Skiing        
Cable Routing - The parts of a frame that directs the cables and housing from the brake or shift levers to brakes or derailleurs. Can be external or internal.   Biking      
Cable Stop - Slotted channels where cable housing ends in a ferrule and is secured on the frame.   Biking      
Cables - The connection between brake levers and shifters and the brakes and derailleurs. Typically made of braided stainless steel with a small bit of metal molded into the end where the cable connects to the brake or shifter.   Biking      
Caddis - One of the three most important aquatic insects imitated by fly fishermen; found world wide in all freshwater habitats; adult resembles a moth when in flight; at rest the wings are folded in a tent shape down the back; the most important aquatic state of the caddis is the pupa, which is its emerging stage. (See Larva, Pupa or Emerger)     Fishing    
Cadence - How fast you are pedaling, described as the number of crank revolutions per minute (RPM).   Biking      
Caeca - Freshwater fish that move to the lower river or saltwater to spawn.     Fishing    
Caenis - The scientific name for the broadwing fly, a tiny, pale green insect which hatches in large numbers on summer evenings besides rivers and lakes.     Fishing    
Caliper Brakes - A brake consisting of two brake blocks which are drawn towards each other through a central pivot and which grip the rim of the wheel.   Biking      
Callibaetis - A widely distributed genus of mayfly that is commonly found in lakes; often called the "Speckled Wing Dun" because of the speckled markings on the leading edge of the adult's wings. Callibaetis are usually found in sizes 16 & 18.     Fishing    
Camber - The upward arc built into a ski or snowboard from the shovel to the tail to provide tension when the ski/snowboard is weighted. The amount of camber helps determine a ski or snowboard's performance characteristics. Skiing        
Campag, Campy - Short for Campagnolo, an Italian manufacturer of bicycle racing components.   Biking      
Cant - The lateral angle of the boot in relation to the ski or snowboard. Starting from a vertical axis, your feet can be canted inwards or outwards to improve edge control. Skiing        
Cantilever Brakes - These are caliper brakes where the pivot point is below the rim and they are fastened to the fork or frame.   Biking      
Cap Construction - A manufacturing technique where the top sheet comes all the way down to the metal edges on the sides of a ski or snowboard; making it part of the overall structure. Skiing        
Cape - Part of a bird skin used for fly tying flies. Also, the neck of poultry or game birds from where hackle feathers are obtained.     Fishing    
Capo - A mountain pass. Of Italian origin.   Biking      
Captain/Driver - The front rider on a tandem bicycle. The Captain controls the handlebars the gearshift levers and the brakes. The back rider follows the instructions from the Captain, such as leaning into corners, etc.   Biking      
Car Back - Expression used on group rides to indicate that a car is approaching from behind.   Biking      
Car Up - Expression used on group rides to indicate that a car is approaching from ahead.   Biking      
Caravan - Vehicles that follow behind a race, including team cars, neutral support vehicles, race officials, the broom wagon, etc.   Biking      
Caravan, Race Caravan - The official support vehicles in a race.   Biking      
Carbohydrate - In the diet, carbohydrates are broken down to glucose, the body’s principal energy source, through digestion and metabolism. It is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles. Carbohydrates can be simple (sugars) or complex (bread, pasta, grains, fruits, vegetables), which contains additional nutrients. One gram of carbohydrate supplies four calories.   Biking      
Cardiovascular - Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.   Biking      
Carve - To be able to make a hard turn while maintaining a clean line. It can also mean to spin a bicycles rear tire and make a rut in the dirt.   Biking      
Carved Turn - A tight turn made with the edge of the ski. Skiing        
Carving Ski - Narrower skis designed for tight, clean turns. Skiing        
Carving - A series of clean "S"-shaped turns made by a ski on its edge when the ski is under enough tension to produce substantial reverse camber. Because the ski has been bent so much, carving produces an arc of smaller radius than merely edging. Skiing        
Cassette - An integrated collection of sequentially increasing cogs designed to slip easily onto a freehub where it is secured by a lockring. (See Block, Cluster or Freewheel)   Biking      
Cast - The action of the line as it is pushed by the rod. Also, the line used as the leader.     Fishing    
Casting Arc - The path that the fly rod follows during a complete cast, usually related to the face of a clock.     Fishing    
Cat Skiing - A type of skiing that utilizes a snowcat to reach skiable terrain, in lieu of chairlifts. This is similar to heliskiing, but less expensive. Skiing        
Cat Tracks - Relatively flat paths used by snowcats to move around a mountain. These are often used by skiers and snowboarders as well to reach different areas within a resort. Skiing        
Cat Up - To upgrade to a new racing category.   Biking      
Cat, Category - A classification of competitive cycling levels in USCF races. Cat 5: Beginner, Cat 4: Novice, Cat 3: Sport, Cat 2: Expert, Cat 1: Elite.   Biking      
Catch Air - When both wheels leave the ground, usually because of a rise or dip in the riding surface.   Biking      
Catch and Release - A practice originating in the late 1930s to conserve fish populations by unhooking and returning a caught fish to the water in which it was caught. This is a highly successful practice in many warm water, cold water and saltwater settings.     Fishing    
Categories - The division of racers based on ability and/or experience.   Biking      
Caudal Fin - The tail fin or tail of a fish.     Fishing    
Caudalpeduncle - The relatively slender part of a fish's body between the last dorsal and anal fins and the base of the tail fin (the caudal fin). It is also known as the "wrist" of the fish.     Fishing    
CDC - Acronym for "Cul de Canard," which literally translates to "butt of the duck." Used both to refer to the feathers from the area around the oil gland of a duck and also to the flies tied with these feathers. The feathers from this area are very wispy and impregnated with natural oils making them extremely waterproof.     Fishing    
CDM - Championnat du Monde (Championship of the World). Of French origin.   Biking      
Center Line Rule - When a race is held on an open road, riders have to stay on the proper side of the road. Anyone crossing the center line of the road is typically relegated or disqualified.   Biking      
Center of Gravity (or Center of Mass) - The point on a skier where an imaginary plane running through the skier in any direction would bisect a skier’s weight equally. Skiing        
Center of Weight - The point on the ground vertically below the center of gravity where a skier’s weight is centred at any given time. If the center of weight is more than a critical distance from the middle of the skis and the feet at any given time, he will usually lose his balance. Various forces will alter this radius of latitude (ie, gravity, forward and sideways movement, the steepness of the slope and the type of snow). Lowering the center of gravity will give a skier more chance to stay within the radius of latitude. Skiing        
Century - A one hundred-mile bike race.   Biking      
Chain - Connects the chainring to the cog and allows the rider to drive the rear wheel by pedaling. Composed of many free moving links pinned together.   Biking      
Chain Gang - A group of riders that go out and can ride hard; club rides.   Biking      
Chain Stays - Part of a frame that extends from the bottom bracket to the rear dropouts.   Biking      
Chain Suck - When the chain sticks to the chainring and is “sucked” between the chain stay, bottom bracket and chainring.   Biking      
Chain Tool - A device used for removing and installing the pins that hold a chain together.   Biking      
Chain - The long loop of metal links that connects the chain-rings to the rear cogs. Without the chain the bicycle would not be very efficient and difficult to ride.   Biking      
Chaingang - A group of cyclists or club riders who meet for training sessions, usually in pacelines.   Biking      
Chainring - One of the two or three large, circular, toothed metal gears attached to a crankset. Chainrings direct the pedaling force from the crankset through the chain and into the rear wheel via the cogs.   Biking      
Chainring Tattoo - Greasy marks or bloody gouges made by chainrings on a cyclist’s lower leg or pant; also rookie mark.   Biking      
Chainset - A setup comprising of the chainwheels, chain and rear sprocket.   Biking      
Chamois - A pad sewn into cycling shorts designed to both cushion and reduce friction. A chamois was traditionally made of soft leather, but is now synthetic.   Biking      
Char - A species of fish that is related to trout, that prefers cold water and is found many places in the world, including both east and west United States. Examples of char are brook trout, lake trout, arctic char and Dolly Varden.     Fishing    
Chase - When the peloton attempts to close down the gap to a breakaway.   Biking      
Chase Group - A group of riders pursuing a breakaway.   Biking      
Chasers - Cyclists who are trying to catch a group of breakaway riders.   Biking      
Chatter - The vibration of skis or snowboards caused by traveling at high speeds. Excessive chatter reduces contact between the ski and the snow and the ability to stay in total control. Skiing        
Chenille - A furry, rope-like material for making the bodies of artificial flies. The bodies end up looking like a pipe cleaner (with thread in place of the stiff wire). Can be found in many colors and materials, and is a critical component of the Wooly Worm and Wooly Buggers patterns.     Fishing    
Chironomid - The scientific name for the members of the Diptera family of insects commonly known as Midges. In the pupae stage they typically appear to be small aquatic worms.     Fishing    
Chondromalacia - A serious knee injury in which there is disintegration of cartilage surfaces due to improper tracking of the kneecap. Symptoms start with deep knee pain and a crunching sensation during bending.   Biking      
Chop - To cut-off another rider in a turn by riding a different line.   Biking      
Chord Length - The distance between the two bits of the ski touching the ground (the shovel and the tail) when the ski is lying on a flat surface. This is the distance usually used to denote a ski’s length. They used to be made in 5cm increments but now skis come in all sizes. Skiing        
Christie - Another name for a parallel turn reputedly invented in Christiania, Norway during the nineteenth century. Skiing        
Chrome-moly – A lightweight steel alloy containing chromium and molybdenum. It became the material for high-end bicycles in the 1970s.   Biking      
Chute - A steep and narrow gully, surrounded by rocks most often. Almost certainly an expert-only run, whether it’s marked or not. Skiing        
Cinch Knot - A knot used to tie the tippet to the eye of the fly. A modified version of this, the Improved Cinch Knot, is probably the most used knot for this purpose.     Fishing    
Circuit Race - A road race on a loop course of at least five kilometers in length. (See Stage Race)   Biking      
Circuit Training - A weight training technique in which you move rapidly from exercise to exercise without rest.   Biking      
Circuit - A course that is ridden two or more times to compose the race.   Biking      
Cirque - A deep, steep-walled mountain basin or amphitheater carved out of the mountain by an alpine glacier. Similar to a bowl but generally steeper. Skiing        
CKD - Abbreviation for Completely Knocked Down; a disassembled bike for shipping.   Biking      
Classic Technique - A cross-country skiing technique characterized by opposite-leg and opposite-arm motion in a straight-ahead direction. Also called kick and glide, this is the technique primarily associated with cross-country skiing. It is what skiing exercise machines simulate. (See Diagonal Stride)         Cross-Country Skiing
Classic - A one day race, usually taking place in the spring or the fall. Paris-Roubaix is a Classic.   Biking      
Clean - To ride through a technical section without touching the ground or crashing.   Biking      
Cleat - Metal or plastic piece fixed to a cycling shoe that snaps into a clipless pedal. Great for generating more power.   Biking      
Cleithrum - A bone at the rear of the skull of a fish. It is the main bone supporting the pectoral fin.     Fishing    
Click Drag - A mechanical system on many inexpensive fly reels used to slow down or resist the pulling efforts of a fish, so as to slow the fish down and tire it to the point where it can be landed. A clicking sound is created by a triangular steel ratchet snaps over the teeth of the gear in the reel spool.     Fishing    
Clinch Knot - A universally-used knot for attaching a hook, lure, swivel, or fly to the leader or line; a slight variation results in the improved clinch knot, which is an even stronger knot for the above uses.     Fishing    
Clincher - Generic term for a tire that mounts on a clincher rim.   Biking      
Clipless Pedal - A pedal that is made so that a cleat on the bottom of the cyclist's shoe will lock into the pedal with a special spring-loaded device. Clipless pedals get their name because they can replace toe clips that can also be used to keep your feet on the pedals.   Biking      
Clipped In - When a rider's feet are secured into clipless pedals.   Biking      
Clips and Straps - Leather or synthetic straps combined with metal or plastic cages attached to pedals. Once the rider's feet have been inserted, the straps are cinched down and the feet are secure.   Biking      
Clouser Minnow - (See Inverted Hook Bonefish Patterns)     Fishing    
Clunker - An old, well-used beater bike; an original ballon-tire cruiser bike converted for all-terrain clunking, or mountain biking. (See Klunker)   Biking      
Cluster - (See Cassette)   Biking      
Clydesdale - A large rider.   Biking      
Coarse Fish - Any freshwater fish of angling interest other than trout salmon, char, grayling, and whitefish.     Fishing    
Coast - To glide while not pedaling but moving forward as on a coaster-brake bike. (See Freewheeling)   Biking      
Coaster Brakes – Coaster brakes allow you to pedal, stop pedaling and coast, and brake by reversing direction with the pedals. Not to be confused with a single speed, which does not brake when you pedal backwards, or a fixed gear which does not brake when you pedal backwards.   Biking      
Cobbled Classic - Any of the traditional classics run over cobbled roads.   Biking      
Cobblestone - Primitive paving stones. Several classic races in the spring are run over roads paved with cobbles, most notably the Paris-Roubaix.   Biking      
Cock Hackles - The neck feathers of a cockerel.     Fishing    
Cog - Any of the 8 to 11 gears mounted on the rear wheel. Freewheels and cassettes are both composed of cogs.   Biking      
Col. - A mountain pass or climb, such as 'Col du Telegraph'. Of French origin.   Biking      
Cold Forged - Forming a metal part by pressing the raw material into a form (as opposed to melt or hot forged).   Biking      
Collar - A ring of feathers or hair placed immediately behind the head of the fly.     Fishing    
Compact Cranks - Crankset with a smaller bolt circle diameter (no more than 110 mm) that allows for smaller chainrings. Typically set up with 50 - 34 tooth rings.   Biking      
Compact Frame - A road frame with a top tube that slopes from front to back and originally based on mountain bike frames. In contrast to a standard frame with a level top tube.   Biking      
Comparadun - A series of no-hackle dry flies developed by Caucci & Nastasi in 1970's using a hair wing tied in a 180-degree flair. They are very effective patterns in slow moving clear water where an imitative (as opposed to impressionistic) pattern is needed.     Fishing    
Component - Any of the parts attached to a bicycle frame that makes it rideable.   Biking      
Cone Head - Same as a bead head but the bead is cone shaped.     Fishing    
Cone Wrench - A very thin wrench used for holding the cone, or outer bearing surface, against the bearings while tightening the locknut with another wrench.   Biking      
Contact Patch - The portion of a tire in touch with the ground.   Biking      
Contra el Reloj - A Spanish phrase that means "against the clock." (See Time Trial)   Biking      
Contre la montre, CLM - A French phrase that means "against the clock." (See Time Trial)   Biking      
Contre Rotation - A twisting of the upper body into the slope to enable the tails of the skis to slide round. Of French origin. Skiing        
Contre Virage - French for ‘against the turn’. An extra bit of turn tacked on to the end of a main turn. As a skier comes to the end of a turn he can either drop quickly down a fraction thereby unweighting the skis, or else contra rotate and thereby steering the skis. The tails can then move around, enabling him to initiate an edge set. Skiing        
Control Points - (See Pits)   Biking      
Cooked - Very tired. (See Wasted or Knackered)   Biking      
Co-Polymers - A mixtures of various nylons and plastics along with anti-UV chemicals that have resulted in the exceptionally high breaking strength of modern tippet material. Co-polymers are not as abrasion resistant as regular nylon monofilament.     Fishing    
Copsicle - A police officer on a bicycle.   Biking      
Corduroy - A common slang term for the grooves found on a recently groomed trail created by a snowcat or grooming machine. Called as such for the obvious resemblance to the fabric. Skiing        
Corixa - The name used to describe the lesser water-boatman beetle and the artificial fly that imitates it.     Fishing    
Corn Snow - Springtime snow; the repeated melting and refreezing of the snow results in corn-sized icy snow crumbs. Skiing        
Corncob - When cogs are so close in size that the cassette resembles the gradual concentric size increase of a corncob. More specifically, a "corncob" is a straight block with the smallest possible cogs, further contributing to the cob-like appearance. (See Straight Block)   Biking      
Corner - The ability of a bicycle rider to smoothly carry speed through turns.   Biking      
Cornering Clearance - The clearance a bicycle has when cornering before digging a pedal in the dirt or ground. Also called road clearance or pedal clearance.   Biking      
Cornice - A dangerous overhang of snow formed on crests and ridges by windy conditions. Resembles a frozen wave. Skiing        
Cote D’Azur - A light blue band on the inside of the cycle track, serving to access the track surface, not of the official cycling surface. Of French origin.   Biking      
Couloir - A steep, narrow passage between rocks suitable for expert skiers. Couloirs should always be approached and skied with care. Also known as a corrie, avalanche chute and gully. Of French origin. Skiing        
Counter-Steering - A maneuver used to control a skid. A rider steers the bicycle briefly in the opposite direction from which he/she wants to turn.   Biking      
Coupe de Monde - A World Cup event.   Biking      
Course des Primes - A race that awards prizes along the way.   Biking      
Cover - The action of casting the fly to a fish or into a promising-looking area of water.     Fishing    
Cowhorn Bars - (See Base Bars)   Biking      
Crank - A slang term for a rider using a lot of effort. Also, the arms which drives the chainwheel. (See Crankset)   Biking      
Crankset - Lever arms attached to the bottom bracket via an axle. The pedal is attached at one end and the chainrings at the other via a spider.   Biking      
Crankshaft - The axle that the cranks attach to.   Biking      
Crazy Charle Flies - (See Inverted Hook Bonefish Patterns)     Fishing    
Cree Hackle - A barred black, red and ginger hackle, sometimes with cream or white flecks.     Fishing    
Creeping - A term describing when something isn't going very well.   Biking      
Crevasse - A deep and often times hidden crack in a glacier or permafrost. Skiing        
Criterium - A road race run using a lot laps on a very short loop course (from 800m to 5km).   Biking      
Critical Mass - A group ride for cyclists’ solidarity, usually in traffic.   Biking      
Cross-Country Biking - A mountain bike discipline where racers ride up as well as down hills. Climbing ability, endurance and aerobic fitness are important. As opposed to gravity events.   Biking      
Cross-Country Downhill Skiing - A combination of Nordic and Alpine skiing.         Cross-Country Skiing
Cross-Country Ski Center - A commercial area featuring groomed trails and other amenities. Most areas offer lessons, rental equipment, food, first aid and warming shelters. Also called a Nordic ski center.         Cross-Country Skiing
Cross-Country Skiing - A common term for Nordic skiing. The term is inclusive of general Nordic touring, metal-edge touring and skate skiing. It is often abbreviated as XC. A superb workout and part of the Nordic Skiing family, cross country skiing uses narrow skis and bindings where the heel releases. Typically, cross-country skiing is done on flat ground as opposed to riding a lift to access downhill skiing. Skiing        
Cross-Country Turn - A skier will push out on their outer ski and transfer their weight to the inner ski.         Cross-Country Skiing
Cross-Training - Combining sports for mental refreshment and physical conditioning, especially during cycling’s off-season.   Biking      
Crosswind - Wind that comes from the side. Bad news for riders!   Biking      
Crud - Glutinous new snow that has been rained on and not had a chance to re-freeze. Best avoided. Skiing        
Cruiser – Typically 3- or 5- speed bikes that feature upright handlebars and/or a comfortable seat for cruising around town at a leisurely pace. Usually much less expensive than high-performance bikes.   Biking      
Cruising - To cruise on skis or bikes at a lesiurely pace.   Biking      
Crust - A frozen layer covering softer snow. Skiing        
Crystal Flash - The trade name for a synthetic, stringy material used in many streamer patterns to add flash and color.     Fishing    
Cul-du-Canard Feather - Short wispy feathers taken from near the preen gland of a duck. Typically there are few of these feathers found per duck. These feathers add a significant amount of float to a fly.     Fishing    
Curling - A sport played on ice involving gently pushing a large, smooth stone along a narrow course. Superficially similar to shuffleboard. Skiing        
Curve Cast - A casting technique that allows an angler to cast a fly around an obstacle. It is also used to minimize the influence of water current or wind on the fly or the fly line.     Fishing    
Cutter – Dave Stoller lives on the wrong side of the tracks in the 1979 film Breaking Away, but he yearns to compete with the Italian cycling team. “Cutters,” short for Stonecutters is the derogatory name given to the working class members in Stoller's community. For the final competition, Stoller and his friends wear the name Cutter on their t-shirts. The film borrows heavily from the real lives of early American road racers George Koenig and Rick Bronson.   Biking      
Cyclocross - A fall or winter cycling discipline where riders compete on modified road bikes over a mostly off-road course that requires occasional dismounts and running.   Biking      
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D Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Dab - To briefly put a foot down to catch one’s balance.   Biking      
Dampening - Term used to describe a tool or technique that reduces the vibrations, also known as chatter, of skis or snowboard that occur at at high speeds. Skiing        
Damping - A method that reduces excess vibrations to make an object easier to control.     Fishing    
Damsel Fly - An important stillwater aquatic insect most commonly imitated in the nymphal form; usually hatches in early to mid-summer. Adult looks like a dragonfly, but folds its wings along its back when at rest.     Fishing    
Dance (on Pedals) - To ride out of saddle, usually on hill climb, with a quick cadence.   Biking      
Dangle - When a fly has swung around in the current and is directly downstream of the rod it is said to be "on the dangle."     Fishing    
Dapping - The art and ancient technique of playing an artificial fly in such a way as to make it look as though it has just fallen on to the water from the branches of bankside trees or other natural obstacles.     Fishing    
Dead Drift - A term applied to the way that artificial flies must drift with the current to appear natural. This requires that the fly line, leader and tippet move with the fly and cause unnatural drag or a "v" that will result in most fish refusing the fly.     Fishing    
Deadbait - Dead fish or other creatures used as bait for predators.     Fishing    
Death Cookies - Cookie-sized chunks of ice sometimes formed during grooming or snowmaking. Often seen more at resorts in New England or the Midwest. Skiing        
Death March - A ride that is longer and harder than expected; also a three-hour tour (from theme song of Gilligan’s Island).   Biking      
Deep Section Rims - A rim that is deeper than a standard box section rim and ranges from 27mm to 100mm deep. Increases a wheel's aerodynamics.   Biking      
Deer Hair - The most commonly-used of the hollow hairs for fly tying; used for the Humpy and the Muddler Minnow styles of flies.     Fishing    
Delamination - The separation of a laminate layer. A typical case of delamination occurs with the molded layers on a ski and snowboard separate. This can ruin equipment if not attended to quickly. Skiing        
Delivery - An alternative term to "covering" the term used to describe the action of casting the fly to a fish or into a promising-looking area of water.     Fishing    
Demi-Fond - A middle distance track event where the bicyclist has the pace set by a motorcycle. There are usually four distances that the competitors race at: 800m 1,500m 3,000m and 10,000m. Both men and women race at these distances.   Biking      
Deoxygenation - Reduction in the dissolved oxygen content of a water caused by hot weather or the introduction of pollutants such as sewage. Excessive deoxygenation is fatal to fish.     Fishing    
Derailleur - The mechanism that moves the chain from one cog or chainring to another on a multi-speed bicycle.   Biking      
Derny - A small, motor-powered bicycle or scooter used in motor-paced track races to allow bicycle riders, drafting behind, to ride faster than without the motorized draft.   Biking      
Detached Body - Fly bodies tied not around the hook shank but attached only at the head of the fly as found in Daddy Long Legs Dry flies.     Fishing    
Detritus - Accumulated silt and organic debris on the bed of a river or still water.     Fishing    
Development - A gear measurement in meters, or the distance traveled in one cycle or revolution of pedals. Of French origin. (See Roll-Out)   Biking      
Devil Take the Hindmost - A race where the last rider across the finish line is eliminated from the race. (See Miss and Out)   Biking      
DFL - Dead F*****g Last or Doing it For Love.   Biking      
Diagonal Stride - The forward movement associated with cross-country skiing. (See Classic Technique)         Cross-Country Skiing
Diagonal V - When the skier is forcing their way uphill and they put their skies in a V shape, tips together, to assist them in moving up the hill.         Cross-Country Skiing
Dialed (In) - A bike that is set up and working nicely.   Biking      
Dibble - The art of attracting fish by skimming and bouncing a wet-fly leader or bushy dry fly across the surface of the water.     Fishing    
Digging a Pedal - A pedal hitting or dragging on the ground while the rider is leaning into a turn.   Biking      
DIN Settings - The tension release setting that determines the amount of pressure required for a ski binding to release during a crash; stands for “Deutsche Industrie Normen" in German. Skiing        
Directeur Sportif - An on-the-road manager for a bicycle race team who typically drives the support car. French for "sporting director."   Biking      
Disc Brakes - Brakes that use cable or hydraulically-activated clamps to squeeze onto a metal disc.   Biking      
Disc Rotor - A metal (or less commonly, carbon fiber) disc bolted onto a special mount on the hub. Disc brakes clamp onto this rotor to stop the bike.   Biking      
Disc Wheel - A solid wheel made of carbon fiber with substantial aerodynamic advantage over standard rim and spoke wheels. Typically used in time trials.   Biking      
Dish - The amount that a wheel’s rim is off center from the hub. A front wheel has zero dish, while a rear wheel is dished to make room for the cassette.   Biking      
Disk Drag - A mechanical system on more expensive fly reels whereby resistance is created to the line as a fish pulls it out. This resistance is intended to slow the fish and tire it. The resistance proper is created by applying pressure between two disks. Different from the click drag, the disk drag is smoother and less likely to create a sudden force that will break the line.     Fishing    
Dismounting - If a rider gets off or dismounts from his bicycle, he is not allowed to get back on but is allowed to wheel, carry or drag their bicycle across the finish line.   Biking      
Disturbance Pattern A wet- or dry-fly pattern that creates a fish-attracting disturbance when retrieved or worked across the current.     Fishing    
DNF - Did Not Finish.   Biking      
DNP - Did Not Place.   Biking      
DNS - Did Not Start.   Biking      
Domestique - French term for the member of a bicycle team whose role is to support the team leader.   Biking      
Doping - Using chemicals or substances to boost performance, usually refers to the use of substances that have been banned by the UCI.   Biking      
Dorsal Fin - The fin on the back of a fish, sometimes divided into two or three partly or entirely separate sections.     Fishing    
Dossard - A competitor’s race number. Of French origin.   Biking      
Double Butted - A type of butting where the butt at the tube end is one step down in thickness from the thinner section in the middle. Also refers to spokes with a similar two step thinning.   Biking      
Double Haul - The term for the cast where the caster quickly pulls and releases the line on both the back cast and the forward cast. It is used to create greater line speed, enabling the caster to reach farther or cut through wind.     Fishing    
Double Poling - When skiers use both poles at the same time to move themselves forward.         Cross-Country Skiing
Double Taper (DT) - A standard fly line design in which both ends of the line are tapered, while the greater portion or "belly" of the line is level; excellent line for short to moderate length casts, and for roll casting; not as well suited for distance casts; commonly available in floating, or sinking styles.     Fishing    
Down Tube - The tube on a frame that extends from the headtube to the junction with the bottom bracket shell.   Biking      
Downhill Bike - A bike made for racing down mountains.   Biking      
Downhill Racing - A mountain bike gravity discipline where riders race one at a time. The one to reach the bottom in the shortest amount of time wins.   Biking      
Downhill skiing - Gravity-induced skiing (a.k.a. alpine skiing). Skiing        
Downshift - To shift into a smaller, and thereby easier, gear ratio; e.g. from the big ring to the small ring or from a smaller cog to a bigger cog.   Biking      
Downstream - The direction the current of a river or stream is moving.     Fishing    
Draft - To ride closely behind a competitor, saving energy by using that racer as a wind break. Riding in front is very strenuous but affords a great energy-saving advantage to the rider behind.   Biking      
Drag - A term used to describe an unnatural motion of the fly caused by the effect of the current on line and leader. Drag is usually detrimental, though at times useful Also, a resistance applied to the reel spool to prevent it from turning faster than the line leaving the spool (used in playing larger fish).     Fishing    
Drag Free - (See Dead Drift)     Fishing    
Dragonfly - An important stillwater aquatic insect most commonly imitated in the nymphal form; usually hatches in early to mid-summer. Unlike the Damselfly, the Dragonfly adult holds its wings straight out (like an airplane) when at rest.     Fishing    
Drainage Basin - The catchment area of a river system.     Fishing    
Drainage System - A river and its tributaries.     Fishing    
Drift - The term for a bicycle that is sliding sideways while continuing to move forward. This is usually as a result of the bicyclist taking a corner too fast.   Biking      
Drive Side - The side of the bicycle that has the chain, chainrings, cogs, and derailleurs. Standing over the bicycle looking toward the front wheel, the drive side is the right-hand side.   Biking      
Drivetrain - The components directly involved with making the rear wheel turn, i.e. the chain, crankset and cassette. Also called the power train.   Biking      
Drogue - A cone-shaped bag, usually made of canvas, which can be trailed behind a drifting boat to slow it.     Fishing    
Drop - To leave another rider behind. The rider left behind is said to have been “dropped.”   Biking      
Drop Anchor - (See Blow Up)   Biking      
Drop Handlebars - Racing handlebars that have low, swept-down ends that help the rider get into an aerodynamic riding position.   Biking      
Drop/Dropped - When a rider has been passed by another rider or group of riders.   Biking      
Dropout - The slots into which the front and rear wheel axles fit on a bike frame.   Biking      
Dropper - The practice of fishing two flies at the same time, often one on the surface and a second underwater. This increases the chances of getting a successful fly in front of a fish.     Fishing    
Dropper - A short length of leader connected to the main leader with a fly attached..     Fishing    
Drops - The curved bottom section of standard road bike handlebars. The curved portions are called Hooks.   Biking      
Dry Fly - A fly designed to float on the surface. Usually constructed of non-water absorbent materials; commonly used to imitate the adult stage of aquatic insects.     Fishing    
Dry Fly Floatant - Chemical preparation that is applied to a dry fly (before using the fly) to waterproof it; may be a paste, liquid, or aerosol.     Fishing    
Dual Compound - In tires, when the tread has a harder central compound with a softer compound on the sides.   Biking      
Dual Pivot Brakes - Brakes with two pivots, each offset from the center line of the wheel to increase leverage.   Biking      
Dual Slalom - A gravity event where riders race two at a time on parallel downhill tracks. The first rider to the bottom wins the heat, with the riders switching sides after the first run. The winner is the rider with the greatest time differential.   Biking      
Dual-Suspension Bike - A bike with both front and rear suspension. The slang for this kind of bike is Dualie.   Biking      
Dubbing - Material used to create a body on the fly.       Fishing  
Dubbing Needle - A fine needle used to pick fibers out of the dubbed body. (See Bodkin)       Fishing  
Dubbing Rake - A tool used to tease out dubbing on a fly to give it an enlarged appearance.       Fishing  
Dump - To crash.   Biking      
Dump - Slang term for an epic snowfall of fresh powder. T-shirst with the slogan, “I love big dumps” can be found in many ski tourist towns. Skiing        
Dun - Term used to describe the first stage of an adult aquatic insect's life cycle. Also, a darkish gray-blue color that is desirable in some fly tying materials.       Fishing  
Duncan's Loop - A monofilament knot used most often to tie a tippet to the eye of a hook. Also called a uni-knot.       Fishing  
Durometer - A measurement used to determine the hardness of a plastic ski boot shell; the lower the durometer, the softer the shell. Skiing        
Dynamic Friction - The friction between the snow and a moving ski. Skiing        
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E Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Eat It - To fall or crash. (See Dump)   Biking      
Echappee - The cyclist who escapes from the pack. The 'escapee.'   Biking      
Echelon - An angled paceline meant to provide maximum draft in a crosswind and allow riders to move considerably faster. Because of the angle, the number of riders is limited, so the rest of the field must either form a second echelon or ride in the gutter.   Biking      
Eddy - A section of water that is less disturbed than the surrounding water, found for example on the edge of a current or where two streams converge.     Fishing    
Edge Set - (See Setting an Edge) Skiing        
Edge - The sharpened metal strip on the sides of skis and snowboards, used for gaining control by biting into the snow for smoother carving and cutting. Holding an edge is a key to a good turn. Skiing       Cross-Country Skiing
Edging - Controlling turns with the edge of your skis. The radius of the arc formed by just an edged ski is greater than a carved ski as there is no substantial reverse camber involved. Skiing        
Effective Edge - The length of metal edges on the ski that is in actual contact with the snow. Today’s shaped skis have a longer effective edge, resulting in a more stable, easier turning ski. - Controlling turns with the edge of your skis. The radius of the arc formed by just an edged ski is greater than a carved ski as there is no substantial reverse camber involved. Skiing        
Effective Top Tube Length - The measurement of a level top tube; applied to frames with sloping top tubes.   Biking      
Elastomer - A compressible, rubber-like material used to absorb shock in some suspension systems.   Biking      
Electrofishing - Passing an electric current through the water to stun the fish, so that they can be collected unharmed for tagging or scientific examination or for relocation to another water.     Fishing    
Electrolytes - Substances such as sodium, potassium and chloride that are necessary for muscle contraction and maintenance of body fluid levels.   Biking      
Elite - An athlete participating at the highest amateur level. In USA Cycling parlance, an adult elite cyclist is between the ages of 23 and 30. (See Junior and Master)   Biking      
Elk Hair - Hair from elk, used in many fly patterns to supply body and floatation.     Fishing    
ELP - Short for English Lavatory Position (or ALP for American/Australian LP). This is a natural position sometimes adopted at the early stages of learning and recommended at any time when good balance is in doubt. By bending both the hips and knees over the middle of the skis with the legs several inches apart the center of gravity is lowered and the center of weight has more room for latitude maneuvers. Skiing        
Embrocation - Strongly scented oil or lotion applied to the legs to provide a feeling of warmth, particularly on cold days.   Biking      
Emerger - Pertaining to aquatic insects, the name used to describe that time frame when the nymph reaches the surface and the adult hatches out; the emerging nymph may well be the single most important nymph phase for the fly fishers to imitate.     Fishing    
End Cap - The plug inserted into the end of a handlebar. Also, the little metal caps that can be crimped over the end of a cable to prevent fraying.   Biking      
End Plugs - (See End Cap)   Biking      
Endo - A front flip over the handlebars, typically occuring when the rear wheel comes off the ground. Short for end-over-end.   Biking      
Endurance Event - Mountain bike events where the emphasis is on aerobic fitness in addition to technical ability.   Biking      
Equipe - A cycling team.   Biking      
Ergometer - A stationary, bicycle-like device with adjustable pedal resistance used in physiological testing or for indoor training.   Biking      
Escape - (See Breakaway)   Biking      
Estaz - Trade name for a chenille which uses colored fine plastic strips for the barbules. Can be found at many craft shops and yarn stores.     Fishing    
Etape - A race stage. Of French origin.   Biking      
Ethafoam - A synthetic material used for making floating flies like a suspender buzzer or nymph.     Fishing    
Euryhaline Fish - Fish, such as most species of salmon and trout, that can live in both freshwater and saltwater.     Fishing    
Extreme Skiing - The act of pushing ski progression to its limit by conquering an uncharted mountain, extremely steep terrain or large cliffs. Skiing        
Extruded Ski Base - Typically found on general touring skis, an extruded base is relatively inexpensive and easy to repair. It is formed from melted polyethylene pellets. Extruded bases are not as abrasion-resistant as sintered bases, nor do they hold wax as well.         Cross-Country Skiing
Eyelets - Reinforced area around the spoke hole on a rim.   Biking      
Eyes - A crucial part of the anticipation process. Looking slightly further ahead than you would on your feet can can help with ski progression and turning. Skiing        
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F Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Face Plant - To hit the ground face first.   Biking      
Fairings - An accessory designed to reduce wind drag, put on the front of the bicycle.   Biking      
Fall Line - An imaginary line describing the most direct route down a mountain. The fall line may change direction owing to bumps and dips. Skiing        
Falling - A very important part of the learning process. Skiing        
False Cast - A standard fly fishing cast used to lengthen and shorten the line, to change direction and to dry off the fly; frequently overused. In false casting, the line is kept moving backwards and forwards without being allowed to touch the surface of the water or the groun. (See Casting Arc, Back Cast, and Forward Cast)     Fishing    
False Cast - standard fly fishing cast; used to lengthen and shorten line, to change direction, and to dry off the fly; frequently overused. In false casting, the line is kept moving backwards and forwards without being allowed to touch the surface of the water or the ground (see casting arc, back cast, and forward cast).     Fishing    
False Flat - A difficult uphill section of road or trail that would appear to be an easier level gradient.   Biking      
False Start - When one or more riders starts a race before they are legally suppose to.   Biking      
Fanny Pack - A small bag worn around the waist; the American term for a bum bag.     Fishing    
Fartlek - A Swedish word meaning "speed play," it is a training technique based on unstructured changes in pace and intensity. It can be used instead of timed or measured interval training.   Biking      
Fast Twitch - Muscle fiber characterized by its ability to contract faster and with greater force. Good sprinters tend to have more fast-twitch than slow-twitch fibers.   Biking      
Fat Boy - A rider with a spare tire or two around the waist.   Biking      
Fat Tire - A nickname for a mountain bike, because mountain bikes have fat tires.   Biking      
Fat - In the diet, fat is the most concentrated source of food energy, supplying nine calories per gram. Stored fat provides about half the energy required for low-intensity exercise.   Biking      
Federation of Fly Fishers - A non-profit organization dedicated to teaching the sport of fly fishing and the improvement of fisheries.     Fishing    
Feed Bag - (See Musette)   Biking      
Feed Zone - Designated portion of a road race where riders are allowed to take supplies from helpers on the side of the road.   Biking      
Feeding Station - Places along the bike course or route where riders in mountain bike or road races can get food and/or drink. (See Feed Zone)   Biking      
Feet - When it concerns skiing, feet are the most sensitive pieces of your body, and second only to your eyes in importance. Skiing        
Fenders - Semi-circular covers for the wheels meant to shield the rider from road spray on wet days.   Biking      
Ferrule - A collar that is found at the point where sections of a fly rod are joined. The end of one section fits inside the end of another, in an overlapping fashion at the ferrule.     Fishing    
Field Sprint - A mass sprint at the finish. (See Bunch Sprint)   Biking      
Field - (See Pack)   Biking      
Fighting Chair - A swivel chair bolted to the deck of a boat from which a big-game angler can fight marlin and other large, powerful fish that can take a long time to subdue. The angler is strapped in by a harness, and either the harness or the chair is equipped with a butt pad or rod socket.     Fishing    
Figure-of-Eight Retrieve - A type of line retrieve where the fly line is bunched in the palm of the hand after being wrapped around the fingures in a figure of eight retrieve.     Fishing    
Filter Feeder - A fish that feeds by filtering plankton from the water.     Fishing    
Final - The last part of a race.   Biking      
Fingerling - A small, immature fish, such as a juvenile trout.     Fishing    
First Tracks - Carving up fresh snow before anyone else does, leaving behind your trail for all else to see. Skiing        
FIS - Short for Federation of International Skiing. International governing body for all ski sport.         Cross-Country Skiing
Fish Hair - Synthetic hair used in tying streamers and salt water flies.     Fishing    
Fish Ladder - A series of interconnected pools created up the side of a river obstruction, such as a damn, to allow salmon and other fish to pass upstream.     Fishing    
Fitness - Just as important as learning to fall. Skiing        
Fixed Gear - A bike that requies constant pedaling and provides no brake mechanics. There is no coasting on a fixed gear bicycle. To stop, riders must reverse their "thrust" by adding resistance to the pedals. Fixed gear bicycles are ridden by the most serious of cyclists and, recently, by urban hipsters.   Biking      
Fixed Grip Lift - A surface chairlift that pulls skiers by cable to various levels of the mountain. Skiing        
Flamme Rouge - A red triangular sign marking the final kilometer of a road race. Of French origin.   Biking      
Flashabou - A commercial name for a colorful synthetic filament material used in fly tying for adding flash to streamers as well as other patterns.     Fishing    
Flashback - A nymph pattern that has a flashy material substituted for the wing case, such as reflective mylar.     Fishing    
Flat Light - A condition that occurs when haze decreases depth visibility; often occuring on cloudy days.          
Flat - An expansive area of water with a relatively unchanging (flat) depth, often over a sand or grass bottom. A common water topography for certain species of fish, like bonefish.     Fishing    
Flea Market - Result of a wipe-out when clothing and gear separate from the skier. (See Yard Sale) Skiing        
Flex - Term used for ski boots to describe stiffness of the outer shell. This term can also used describe how much a ski or snowboard bends when pressure is applied; typically, the more expert a skier, the stiffer the ski. Skiing        
Float - When the clipless pedal system is designed to allow the heel to move in an arc, with the pedal as the center of the arc.   Biking      
Float Tube - Originally using a tractor or truck inner tube, this is a one-person craft with a seat across the bottom on which the fly fisher sits. Feet are in the water and scuba fins are used to move the tube around. This type of fishing boat is very popular with warm water fly fishers and with individuals who fish high mountain lakes.     Fishing    
Floatant - A water-proofing (usually oily) salve or cream that is used to help flies, leaders and fly lines float.     Fishing    
Floating Fly Line - A fly line where the entire line floats; best all round fly line. (See Double Taper, Level, Shooting Head or Weight Forward)     Fishing    
Floor Pump - A tire pump with a flat plate on one end and a plunger pump handle and a hose attachment on the other to allow efficient tire inflation.   Biking      
Floss - Multi-strand silk or another synthetic substitute for tying flies.     Fishing    
Fluorescent - Material that emits light of a visible color when ultra violet light falls upon it in the water.     Fishing    
Fluorocarbon - Tippet or leader material.     Fishing    
Fly - An artificial lure hand tied with different natural and synthetic materials tied on hooks.     Fishing    
Fly Casting - The process of casting a fly line onto the water; involves many different casts. (See Back Cast, Forward Cast, False Cast, Roll Cast, S Cast or Shooting Line)     Fishing    
Fly Fishing - A technique for fishing where the weight of the line is used to cast a very light weight fly that would not be heavy enough to be cast with a conventional spinning or casting rod.     Fishing    
Fly Line - A weighted line which is cast onto the water to deliver the fly to a desired location; the key component to fly fishing. Made of a tapered plastic coating over a braided dacron or nylon core; available in several tapers and in floating, sinking, and sink-tip styles. (See Double Taper, Shooting Head, Weight Forward, Sink-Tip, or Floating Fly Line)     Fishing    
Fly Pattern - A recipe used for tying a specific fly.     Fishing    
Fly Reel - A reel used to store line, provide smooth tension and to counterbalance the weight of the fly rod during the casting process. Can be found in many different weights and with different drag mechanisms.     Fishing    
Fly Rod - A type of fishing rod especially designed to cast a fly line, commonly ranging in length between 7 and 9 feet. Fly rods are commonly built with bamboo, fiberglass and carbon graphite. (See Fly Line)     Fishing    
Fly Tying - The process of building fishing flies using thread and various materials.     Fishing    
Fly - An imitation of a fish food item, traditionally very light and made of hair, feathers and threa tied to a hook. Modern flies have many synthetic materials and often include lead to help them sink.     Fishing    
Flyer - A surprise attack in a competition, usually by a solo rider towards the end of a race.   Biking      
Flying Start - A race that starts with the rider already at top speed. (See 200m)   Biking      
Foldable Tire - A clincher tire with a bead made of a strong, flexible plastic.   Biking      
Footbed - The removable sole inside a ski boot’s liner. Factory footbeds are typically designed to be replaced, as no two feet are alike. Custom footbeds can (and should) be made to fit the sole of the foot as closely as possible. Skiing        
Force the Pace - Pushing hard to raise the speed of the whole field while riding at the front of the peloton.   Biking      
Forceps - Hand-operated medical instrument widely used in fly-fishing to remove flies from the jaws of a hooked fish. Have plier-like jaws with locking clips so that once they are clamped to the hook, they stay there until you release them.     Fishing    
Forcing - (See Force the Pace)   Biking      
Fork - Consists of two fork legs, with dropouts at the tips and a crown that joins the legs to the steerer tube. Holds the front wheel of a bicycle and permits steering.   Biking      
Form - The period of time when an athlete is mentally and physically ready to race. One is said to be “in form” while showing fitness during certain key events.   Biking      
Forward Cast - The front portion of the false cast or pick-up and lay-down, and a mirror image of the back cast.     Fishing    
Forward Taper - (See Weight Forward)     Fishing    
Foul Hook - To hook a fish anywhere but in the mouth.     Fishing    
Foxing - Not showing all the cards. Saving themselves.   Biking      
Frame - The central structure of a bicycle and the base for all the bike’s different components and accessories.   Biking      
Frame Pump - A portable pump that can be affixed somewhere on the bicycle frame. Secured either by tension between tubes (e.g., along the top tube between the headtube and seat tube) or by some kind of mounting bracket (usually bolted to the water bottle bosses).   Biking      
Frame Size – A measurement of a frame from the center of the bottom bracket to the apex of the top tube (where it meets the seat post).   Biking      
Frameset - The name for the frame and fork arrangement.   Biking      
Free Heel Skiing - (See Telemark Skiing) Skiing        
Free Wheel - A small sprocket that drives the rear wheel, but it can also spin freely when the pedals are not being pedaled.   Biking      
Freehub - The ratcheting mechanism on the rear hub where a cassette can be attached. Retracting teeth, or pawls, within the freehub allow it to engage when pedaled forward and to freewheel when pedaled backwards. There are splines, or raised ridges, on the exterior that integrate with channels in the cassette.   Biking      
Freeride - An in-between classification for full-suspension mountain bikes. Not quite a downhill bike, still light enough to ride up some hills, but equipped with enough suspension travel to handle steeper, more technical terrain.   Biking      
Freestone - A type of river or stream with a significant gradient resulting in medium to fast-moving water. Although the upper reaches of a freestone stream may be spring-fed, the vast majority of its flow comes from run-off or tributaries. The fast-moving water inhibits the growth of weeds or other rooted vegetation resulting in a "free stone" bottom. Freestone streams are less fertile than spring creeks resulting in a smaller and less diverse aquatic insect population. Fewer bugs in faster water usually results in fewer but more opportunistic trout.     Fishing    
Freestyle - A style of skiing or snowboarding primarily focused on tricks. Skiing        
Freestyle Technique - A motion in Nordic skiing that involves pushing the inside edge of the ski in one motion backward and outward at approximately a 45-degree angle.         Cross-Country Skiing
Freestyle - Another term for skate skiing. (See Skating)         Cross-Country Skiing
Freewheel – The sprocket cluster on the rear wheel. The “gears.” (See Cassette)   Biking      
French Fries - Slang term for skiing with skis parallel to one another; the opposite of pizza. Usually used while teaching kids how to ski. Skiing        
Fresh-Run Fish - A migratory fish, such as a salmon, that has just left the sea and is travelling up a river to spawn.     Fishing    
Freshwater - The water of rivers and most stillwaters, containing little or no dissolved salt.     Fishing    
Friction Shifting - A type of shifting that uses the friction of a screw to hold the lever in gear rather than mechanical indexing. (See Index Shifting)   Biking      
Fried - Stuffed; no energy or strength remaining.   Biking      
Frostbite - A serious condition that takes place in extremely cold conditions, when part of your body freezes and must be medically treated. This usually happens to the face or other unprotected areas. Skiing        
Frozen Granular - Older snow that has frozen together, typically a result of being groomed repeatedly. Different than ice, in that frozen granular keeps its shape. Skiing        
Fry - The first stage of a fish after hatching from an egg.     Fishing    
Full Suspension - A bicycle with both front and rear wheel suspension.   Biking      
Full Tuck - An extremely crouched position used for maximum speed on descents.   Biking      
Fun Box - A box found in terrain parks built to slide (See Jib) across on skis or snowboards. Skiing        
Functional Threshold - The pace a rider can maintain for roughly one hour. Corresponds well with the core aerobic metabolic process and training at this intensity stimulates key fitness adaptations.( See Lactate Threshold)   Biking      
Funny Bike - An aerodynamic time-trial bicycle with a front wheel that is smaller than the rear wheel. It is now banned internationally by the UCI and all bikes are required to have front and rear wheels of the same size.   Biking      
Furnace - The coloration of feathers from a specially-bred chicken that dark brown-to-black along the center changing to light browns on edge.     Fishing    
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G Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Gaiters - A neoprene anklet or legging put over the top of wading shoes to keep gravel from getting into the shoe. Also called gravel guards.     Fishing    
Gall Bladder - A small pouch, on or near the liver of a fish, which stores bile. Bile is a fluid produced by the liver, and aids the absorption of food by the gut.     Fishing    
Gamefish - Any fish valued for its sporting qualities.     Fishing    
Gap - The distance between groups on the road.   Biking      
Gapped - When a rider gets dropped, he has been "gapped off."   Biking      
GC - (See General Classification)   Biking      
Gear - The device on a bike that changes its pedaling speed. Lower gears are harder to pedal but good for speed. Higher gears are easier to pedal and ideal for climbing hills. Gears range from a single gear to as many as 33 gears on certain road bicycles.   Biking      
Gear Ratio - A number that corresponds to the effective wheel size of a given combination of chainring, cog and wheels. For example, a big gear is a big gear ratio and thus harder to pedal. (See Big Gear)   Biking      
Gel-Spun Polyethylene - A synthetic fiber that is extremely thin, supple, slippery, very abrasion resistant and strong. It is often used as a braided fly line backing where large amounts of backing are needed and space on the reel is limited.     Fishing    
General Classification - The overall standings in a stage race. Riders compete for the lowest time.   Biking      
Geometry - The various angles and lengths of a bicycle frame (e.g., head-tube angle or top-tube length) that together create a safe handling machine properly fitted to the rider’s physical dimensions and technical ability.   Biking      
Ghillie - A term for "fishing guide" in Britain, Scotland, Wales and Ireland. Of Celtic origin.     Fishing    
Giant Slalom - Similar to Slalom racing, but with the racing gates placed further apart to allow for faster speeds and wider turns. This discipline uses two pole-gates rather than single-pole gates. Skiing        
Gill Arch - The structure behind the gill covers of a bony fish (or within the gill slits of a cartilaginous fish) that supports the gill filaments and gill rakers.     Fishing    
Gill Filaments T- he parts of a fish's gills that absorb oxygen from the water.     Fishing    
Gill Rakers - Toothlike projections on the gill arches. They can be used to trap food items, such as plankton, carried in the water flowing through the gills.     Fishing    
Glade Skiing - Skiing between trees. Skiing        
Glade - A cluster of trees. Skiing        
Glass Cranking - Putting little pressure on the cranks, taking it easy, not trying.   Biking      
Glide Wax - A wax that is put on the bottom of skating and telemark skis; used to help reduce friction between the skis and the snow.         Cross-Country Skiing
Glide Zone - The portion of a ski base (tips and tails) that is waxed to maximize glide.         Cross-Country Skiing
Glide Zone - The portion of a ski base (tips and tails) that is waxed to maximize glide         Cross-Country Skiing
Glutes - The gluteal muscles of the buttocks. They are key to pedaling power.   Biking      
Glycogen - Source of sugar used for quick energy, stored in the liver and muscles. Consuming carbohydrate before, during and after workouts helps prime, preserve and restore glycogen. (See Aerobic or Anaerobic)   Biking      
Glycogen Window - The period within an hour after exercise when depleted muscles are most receptive to restoring their glycogen content. By eating foods or drinking fluids rich in carbohydrate, energy stores and recovery are enhanced.   Biking      
Glycogen - A fuel derived as glucose (sugar) from carbohydrate and stored in the muscles and liver. It’s the primary energy source for high-intensity cycling. Reserves are normally depleted after about two-and-a-half hours of riding.   Biking      
Goggles - Protective eye wear used to gurd against bright sun, ultraviolet rays, wind and snow. Skiing        
Gold Head - A fly that uses a metal bead to simulate the thorax on a nymph or wet fly and to add weight to the fly. Typically gold or silver is used, but any color can be used. Often a bright color such as red can stimulate a fish into biting. In North America they are known as bead heads.     Fishing    
Golden Age - A historic period in the 1890s when bicycles were extremely popular.   Biking      
Golden Pheasant - A game bird whose crest, neck and wing feathers are used extensively in fly patterns.     Fishing    
Gondola - An enclosed lift that fits, on average, between four to eight passengers; like a mini-cabin, and generally faster than an open chairlift. Skiing        
Gonzo - A word to describe anything fun, crazy, extreme or cool.   Biking      
GORP - Good ol' raisins and peanuts; a high-energy mix for snacking on during rides. Can also include nuts, seeds, M&Ms, granola, etc.   Biking      
Grab - Holding onto any part of your skis or snowboard while in the air; used to add style to a trick and to maintain balance. (See Indy Grab or Mute Grab) Skiing        
Graduated Length Method - The use of progressively longer skis as skill improves. Skiing        
Grand Tour - Refers to the world's three major three-week cycling stage races: Tour de France, Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy) and Vuelta a Espana (Tour of Spain)   Biking      
Granny Gear - The lowest gear on a bike. A combination of the small chainring with the largest cassette cog.   Biking      
Granny Ring - Usually the smallest chainring on a triple crankset. (See Granny Gear)   Biking      
Granular Snow - Sugar-like snow that has been packed down by skis and is heavy, not powdery. Skiing        
Graphite - The most popular rod-building material in use today; offers the best weight, strength, and flex ratio of any rod building material currently available.     Fishing    
Gravity Check - Falling down or crashing, thereby confirming that, indeed, gravity is still in effect.   Biking      
Gravity Event - A mountain bike race where the competitors start at the top of a hill and race to the bottom. It includes downhill, dual slalom, 4-cross or mountain cross, and Super D. These races require bike handling, strength, technique and steely nerves more than aerobic fitness and endurance.   Biking      
Gravy Dog - A bike messenger who makes high-paid deliveries.   Biking      
Green Circle - The easiest trails on a mountain, denoted on trail maps and signs by a green circle. Usually groomed, wide and flat, and not a place for experienced skiers as traffic must remain slow. European resorts will use blue as the color to indicate an easy trail. Skiing        
Green Jersey - The jersey awarded to the leader, and eventual winner, of the points competition at the Tour de France.   Biking      
Gregario - (See Domestique)   Biking      
Grilse - A young, not-sexually mature Atlantic salmon.     Fishing    
Grimpeur - A rider with good climbing abilities. Of French origin.   Biking      
Grip - The cork handle of a fly rod, generally made of cork rings shaped in several different ways, including a cigar grip, full-wells grip, half-wells grip, superfine grip.     Fishing    
Grip (or Kick) Wax - A substance that increases the friction between the skis and snow to improve traction. It is applied to the middle part of waxable skis for classic races. Grip wax produces traction by allowing the rough edges of snow crystals to penetrate the wax layer just enough to grab hold of the ski when it is stationary and weighted. It does not prevent the ski from gliding smoothly when already in motion.         Cross-Country Skiing
Grip Zone - The middle of cross country skis' base area. This area grips the snow when a skier's weight is on one ski or the other.         Cross-Country Skiing
Grips - The rubber castings that fit over the ends of handlebars that a rider holds onto when riding their bike.   Biking      
Grizzly - The coloration pattern from a specially bred chicken with barred black and white "V" pattern. Very popular for many flies because it may create the illusion of motion.     Fishing    
Groomed Trail - A smooth trail that has been groomed by a snowcat machine. (See Corduroy)         Cross-Country Skiing
Grooming - The most common form of trail maintenance that packs down and prepares the snow for smooth skiing. Skiing        
Grunt - A hardened cyclist; also a very difficult climb.   Biking      
Grupetto - In a stage race, a group that bands together to ride just fast enough to make the time cut. Composed of riders not in contention for the general classification.   Biking      
Gruppo - The collection of many of the components traditionally used to build a bicycle. It includes all drive train parts, brakes, brake/shift levers, hubs, headset, and bottom bracket and sometimes a seatpost. Also, an Italian word for peloton.   Biking      
Guide - Metal rings, usually bent pieces of wire along the length of the fly rod, to ease the release of line during casting and to distribute the stress of a fish along the entire length of the rod.     Fishing    
Gutter - The far edge of the road. Also the place where you are forced to ride because of crosswinds and echelons. Riding "in the gutter" means that you are clinging to the back of the pack at a high rate of speed, at maximal effort and with minimal draft. You can also "put" or "slam" the race "into the gutter" in a crosswind by riding into the gutter on the side of the road with no protection from the wind.   Biking      
Gutterball - Intentionally riding in the gutter in a crosswind to force other riders to either form echelons or ride in wind.   Biking      
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H Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Hackle - A feather, usually from the neck area of a chicken, can be any color (dyed or natural). Hackle quality, such as the stiffness of the individual fibers and amount of web, determines the type of fly tied with the hackle. Many hackles are grown specifically for fly tying.     Fishing    
Hackle Gauge - A ruler-like device to make sure the length of hackle used is appropriate for the size of hook. Particularly, hackle feather fibers (barbules) on a classic dry fly should be the same lenth as the hook gap.     Fishing    
Hackle Pliers - A tool for wrapping the hackle feather around the hook.     Fishing    
Hair Stacker - A small tube which is used to level a bunch of hair, usually deer hair.     Fishing    
Hairbug - A fly constructed through a special technique called "hair spinning" whereby bouyant (hollow) winter-coat, slippery deer, elk, antelope or caribou hair is made to flare and form a solid shape. This hair can be further trimmed to shapes like frog bodies. Hairbugs are commonly used for warmwater fish, but a mouse imitation hairbug is excellent for big brown trout on certain waters.     Fishing    
Half Wheel - An occurance when the rider in front of you insists on staying in the front at a half-wheel's length   Biking      
Halfpipe - A U-shaped channel with smooth walls used by freestyle skiers and snowboarders for aerial tricks. Typically a halfpipe is created by carving a channel out of massive piles of snow, forming the bottom half of a tube, but they can also be dug out of the ground in areas with minimal snowfall. Skiing        
Hammer - To ride hard. Also, to "put the hammer down."   Biking      
Hamstrings - The muscle on the back of the thigh, not well developed by cycling.   Biking      
Handicap Races - Usually a 1000-meter (3281 feet) race where riders start at different places on the track according to their handicap. An assistant holds them up on the track and at the start they give the rider a push to start them off.   Biking      
Handlebar - The metal or composite tube that a rider holds onto to control the bicycle.   Biking      
Handling - A description of the overall impression that a bicycle gives the rider, based on the combination of all frame geometry and components.   Biking      
Handsling - An exchange or relay of a teammate in a Madison or “American” track race, in which one teammate begins accelerating to link hands of exhausted teammate and get a slingshot start into the race.   Biking      
Hanging In - Barely maintaining contact at the back of the pack.   Biking      
Hard Tail - A mountain bike that has no rear suspension. These bikes usually have front suspension and might have suspension in the seat as well.   Biking      
Hardgoods - A catch-all term used to classify ski and snowboard equipment, including the skis, snowboards, boots and bindings. Skiing        
Hardpack - A term for snow that has been densely packed due to repeated grooming or skiing and the lack of fresh snowfall. Skiing        
Hare's Ear - A nymph in sizes 12-16 can be used as both a mayfly and a caddis fly imitation and in larger sizes as a stonefly imitation. Impressionistic flies are usually most effective in medium to fast water, in streams with lesser populations of aquatic insects.     Fishing    
Harries - Preparing a ski for use in classic skiing when snow conditions are such that kick wax is not suitable. A wire brush is used to coarsen the bottom of the skis.         Cross-Country Skiing
Hatch - The lifecycle stage when a large number of nymphs or pupas become fully-winged flies; often produces frantic feeding activity among trout.     Fishing    
Haul - A pull on the fly line with the non-casting hand to increase the line speed and get greater distance. This is done effectively during line pickup.     Fishing    
HC - Short for Hors Classe; outside or beyond classification (of a race or a mountainous climb).   Biking      
Head Tube - The very front tube of a bicycle frame that is attached to the top tube and downtube. The headtube holds the fork in place via the steerer tube.   Biking      
Header - A face-first fall (See Face Plant, Melon Slide or Nose Burner)         Cross-Country Skiing
Headset - Bearings which secure the fork, via the steerer tube, into the headtube.   Biking      
Headwall - A steep to vertical cliff found at the end of a valley; often the uppermost part of a Cirque. Skiing        
Headwaters - The upstream section of the river before the main tributaries join it. This section is typically much smaller in width and flow than the main section of the river.     Fishing    
Heart rate - As the number of beats per minute (BPM) rises and pumps more blood and oxygen to working muscles, the heart rate provides an indrect measure of cycling performance. (See Power)   Biking      
HEC - Short for Hommes Elite Coupe (Men's Elite Cup).   Biking      
Heli-Skiing - Powder skiing in areas only accessible by helicopter. This is primarily for advanced skiers as it is potentially dangerous and/or offers greater terrain challenges. Skiing        
Hen Hackle - Hackle feathers from a hen chicken characterized by soft, wide feathers.     Fishing    
Herl Feathers - Used for tying with long individual barbules each having short dense fibers. Used as tails and to make fly bodies, usually from peacock and ostrich.     Fishing    
Herringbone - To climb uphill on skis, spreading them apart to keep from sliding backwards; called as such due to the geometric pattern left behind in the snow. Skiing       Cross-Country Skiing
Hex Wrench - (See Allen Key or Wrench)   Biking      
High Gear - A gear combination with a larger gear ratio. Subjectively, a high gear is harder to pedal allowing the rider to continue pedaling at higher speeds. (See Upshift)   Biking      
High Season - A busy period of time during winter holidays (Christmas, New Years, President's Week) in which lift tickets and lodging are often more expensive. Skiing        
High Side - Failing to make a turn and being thrown from the bike in a direction opposite to the turn.   Biking      
High-Speed Detachable Quad - Fast-loading chairlifts that quickly transport skiers and snowboarders to the top of the mountain. Sometimes called "superchair"s because of their velocity. During loading and unloading, the chair actually detaches from the cable and provides easier on/off access. Skiing        
Hill Climb - A race to the top of one particular hill.   Biking      
Hitter - A good rider.   Biking      
Holiday Season - Usually between mid-December and mid-January; prices are high as a result of school vacations and the holidays. Skiing        
Hollow Hair - Hair from some animals is mostly hollow, thus holding air and making these hairs float. Ideal for tying dry flies and bass bugs. Antelope, deer, and elk all have hollow hair.     Fishing    
Holmenkollen - Norwegian ski stadium/course and home of the most famous annual World Cup competition for cross-country skiing.         Cross-Country Skiing
Honk -To ride standing up. This is so the rider can gain more power with his upper legs.   Biking      
Hoods - The upper portion of road bike brake levers that provides an additional hand hold. Typically has a rubber cover.   Biking      
Hook - The object upon which the fly is tied; can be any size from tiny to huge; made from steel wire, and either bronzed, cadmium coated, or stainless. Hook designs are variable; style used depends upon the type of fly being tied.     Fishing    
Hook Size - The distance between the hook shank and the hook point.     Fishing    
Hook - To abruptly and unexpectedly move the back wheel on your bike to the side, thus causing the following rider to move over and slow down to keep from crashing.   Biking      
Horror Flies - (See Inverted Hook Bonefish Patterns)     Fishing    
Hot Dog - A person who takes jumps off small cliffs and performs tricks on skis. Skiing        
Hour Record - The farthest distance covered in one hour in a velodrome.   Biking      
Housing - The sheath that protects a shift or brake cable and allows it to move smoothly.   Biking      
Hub - The center of a wheel with flanges that connect to spokes and bearings to allow an axle to spin freely.   Biking      
Huck - Slang term for launching off a jump. Skiing        
Hunger Knock - To be hungry and low on energy.   Biking      
Hybrid - A bike that combines features of road and mountain bikes for multi-purpose use. Also called a cross bike.   Biking      
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I Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Ice Fishing - A specialized form of angling for fishing through holes cut in the ice of frozen-over waters. The species sought include crappies, walleye, northern pike, pickerel and perch.     Fishing    
Ice - Dangerous skiing conditions; clear and breakable. Skiing        
Ichthyology - The scientific study of fish and their habits.     Fishing    
IGFA - The International Game Fish Association, based in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. It maintains lists of record fish and also sets technical standards for fishing tackle.     Fishing    
Imitative Flies - Flies tied to more closely match specific insects. Imitative flies are most effective in slow-moving, clear water, with finicky trout in fertile streams with large populations of aquatic insects.     Fishing    
Imitator - A fly to imitate the real insect.     Fishing    
Impressionistic Flies - Flies tied to loosely suggest a variety of insects or insect families. Impressionistic flies are usually most effective in medium to fast water, in streams with sparser populations of aquatic insects.     Fishing    
Improved Clinch Knot - A popular knot to tie a monofilament tippet to the eye of a hook. If the tippet is run through the loop twice it is even stronger. Also called the Trilene Knot.     Fishing    
In the Drops - To ride with your hands grasping the drop handlebars. A position used at high speed for aerodynamics.   Biking      
In-Bounds - Term used to describe ski terrain inside the boundaries of a ski resort; the opposite of out-of-bounds. Skiing        
Index Shifting - Shifters with mechanical levers that direct each shift onto a particular gear.   Biking      
Indicator - A floating object placed on the leader or end of the fly line to "indicate" the take of the fly by a fish or to indicate the path of the drift of the fly; used when nymph fishing with a slack line; very effective.     Fishing    
Individual Pursuit - A track race where two competitors start the race on opposite sides of the track and try to catch the other competitor or finish in the fastest time. (See Pursuit)   Biking      
Indy Grab - Grabbing the toe edge of your snowboard between the bindings with your rear hand; the most basic grab. Similarly executed on skis by grabbing a ski’s outside edge. Skiing        
Integrated Binding - A binding system provided with skis that are designed to work specifically with that ski. Quickly becoming the industry standard as they provide better flex by bending with the ski to increase control and the transfer of power. Skiing        
Integrated Headset - A frame with cups built directly in which allows bearings to set in the frame instead of in separate cups.   Biking      
Integrated Seat Tube - A seat tube that extends beyond the junction with the top-tube and seat-stays to form a sort of seat post. Usually requires cutting to broadly adjust the height, with smaller adjustments available through a moveable clamp.   Biking      
Intermediate Sprint - A sprint line before the finish that is usually part of a points competition during a stage race.   Biking      
International Mountain Bicycling Association (IMBA) - The international organization that regulates mountain biking standards.   Biking      
Interval - A training method to simulate racing conditions in small doses; alternates brief, high-impact training with short periods of easier resting for partial recovery.   Biking      
Introperculum - In bony fish, the front lower bone of the gill cover.     Fishing    
Invertebrate - A creature that has no backbone, for instance an insect or a worm.     Fishing    
Inverted Hook Bonefish Flies - This type of fly was designed so that the hook rode above the shank in the water, thus preventing the hook from getting caught on the bottom. By adding relatively stiff wing material near the hook eye, the fly became nearly weedless. Hooks are dressed to create inversion by bending the hook, by adding weighted eyes on the hook shank opposite the point and/or by using relatively buoyant materials to cover the hook point. Any of these three techniques can cause the fly to ride inverted. If tied with sparse materials, these flies can be made to sink very fast. Bonefish pattern should match the color of the bottom in the area you are fishing. Flies that hit the water with little impact are more effective than those that strike heavy and spook the fish.     Fishing    
ITT - Short for Individual Time Trial.   Biking      
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J Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Jam - A period of hard, fast riding.   Biking      
Jersey - A shirt designed for cycling, made of breathable material such as polyester (with some lycra for stretch) and with pockets in the back for holding food and other roadside essentials.   Biking      
Jet Turn - Not used much for recreational skiing nowadays, this involves a quick avalment accompanied by a backwards and sideways (downhill) weight shift. Skiing        
Jib - Riding a snowboard or skis across on a non-snow surface, like a rail, fun box or even a fallen log. Skiing        
Jig - A small, artificial lure with a metal head, often dressed with feathers.     Fishing    
Jigging - Fishing by jerking a jig or other bait up and down in the water; an ice-fishing technique.     Fishing    
JML - Jean Marie LeBlanc, director of the Tour de France.   Biking      
JRA - Short for Just Riding Around.   Biking      
Jump - To make a sudden acceleration, whether to initiate an attack or a burst for the finish line.   Biking      
Jungle Cock - An Indian game bird whose hackles have a distinctive cream 'eye' markings. Now illegal to use in the UK and other countries to protect this endangered bird. Artificial material available.     Fishing    
Junior - A rider 18 years old or younger.   Biking      
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K Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Keeper - A loop of thin wire built into the shaft of the fly rod (near the grip) that can be attached to the fly while still connected to the tippet and line. This allows the fly fisher the freedom to walk and climb without concern about hooking trees, grass or himself.     Fishing    
Keirin - A sprint race on the track where a group of riders—typically six—start out paced by a pacecar. The pacecar gradually increases the speed until leaving the track with about 3 laps to go, leaving the rides to battle it out.   Biking      
Kelt - A salmon or trout that has spawned.     Fishing    
Kermesse - Belgium for criterium or circuit race (laps around a set course).   Biking      
Kevlar - A man-made material, ideal for leaders/tippets for fish with sharp teeth, hard to cut.     Fishing    
Key Style Tarpon Flies - Flies used in clear water wherever tarpon are found. A fisherman named Syu Apte was one of the first people to use this design in the 1950s and, the guides in the Florida Keys have used just about every colour combination since.     Fishing    
Kick - A sudden burst of speed at the end of a race.   Biking      
Kick and Glide Movement - (See Classic Technique)         Cross-Country Skiing
Kick Boat - A peronalized,one-person fishing boat, usually with a seat between two pontoons at a level that allows the anglers feet to be in the water. It is propelled by swim fins, oars, or even a small electric motor.     Fishing    
Kick Out - A cornering technique on a mountain bike when the rider shifts his weight to the front wheel and then shifts his body to one side so that the back wheel slides outwards.   Biking      
Kick Turn - A move used to turn 180-degrees, often on steep-angled slopes. Skiing        
Kick Wax - (See Grip Wax)         Cross-Country Skiing
Kicker - A cheese wedge-shaped jump, often built in the backcountry for catching air and throwing down tricks. Skiing        
Kicking - Suffering at the mercy of a better rider.   Biking      
Kilojoules - A measure of the total work done during a ride, as measured by a power meter. Roughly translates into calories burned.   Biking      
Kilometer - A velodrome event, also known as the kilometer time trial, ridden from a standing start where the rider is held by a mechanical starting machine or volunteer. (See Red Kite)   Biking      
King of the Mountain (KOM) - The title given to the best hill climber during the uphill portion of a stage or circuit race.   Biking      
Kipper - A smoked fish.     Fishing    
Kit - The collection of clothing that a cyclist wears to ride.   Biking      
Klister - Sticky, gooey gel used for kick (grip) waxing in conditions such as old snow and very wet snow.         Cross-Country Skiing
Knee Warmers - Removable knee covers that turn normal shorts into knickers.   Biking      
Knobby Tires - Heavy-duty tires that have large rubber knobs that are spaced far apart. Knobby tires are used on off-road riding and are good at providing traction in wet and muddy ground for mountain bikers.   Biking      
Knotless Tapered Leader - A fly fishing leader entirely constructed from a single piece of monofilament. Extrusion or acid immersion are most commonly used to taper the leader.     Fishing    
Knotted Leader - A fly fishing leader constructed by knotting sections of different diameter leader material to each other to make a tapered leader. Most commonly used knots to construct such a leader are blood (or barrel) knot and surgeon's knot. (See Blood Knot, Surgeon's Knot, Leader, Tapered Leader or Leader Material)     Fishing    
Krill - Tiny, shrimp like crustaceans, of the Euphausiidae family, that form an essential part of the marine food chain.     Fishing    
Kype - A hood-like protrusion on the mandible of a spawning male trout or salmon.     Fishing    
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L Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
L’Americaine - A French term for the American, an endurance track race in which teams of two riders relay one another, one in the fray the other resting, usually a massed-start points race, often within a six-day race. Named for its American origin at Madison Square Garden in 1890s. (See Madison)   Biking      
Lace - Hollow, fine plastic tubing wrapped around a hook shank to supply a segmented body.     Fishing    
Lacher - To drop out or let go.   Biking      
Lacing Pattern - The organization of spokes on a wheel. For example, 3-cross lacing has each of the spokes cross the other three times.   Biking      
Lactate - After the body breaks down glucose to produce energy, the resulting lactic acid quickly releases hydrogen ions and recombines with potassium and sodium to form a new compound called lactate. Higher levels of lactate are associated with decreased ability to sustain exercise. Once viewed as a waste product, experts now a agree that lactate actually plays a complex role in facilitating energy production and that it is not, of itself, responsible for fatigue. (See Lactate Threshold or Lactate Tolerance)   Biking      
Lactate Threshold (LT) - The exertion level beyond which the body can no longer produce energy aerobically, resulting in the buildup of lactic acid. This is marked by muscle fatigue, pain and shallow, rapid breathing. Also called anaerobic threshold (AT).   Biking      
Lactate Tolerance - Traditionally considered the ability to tolerate higher levels of lactate and thus to continue at a high intensity efforts for a longer period of time. The idea was that repeated efforts causing an accumulation of lactate would allow the body to adapt to that higher level. With the role that lactate plays in energy production evolving, however, it is unlikely that lactate is actually causes this discomfort. Instead, it is likely that the correlation with higher lactate levels is merely a coincidence. Instead, it is likely that the release of hydrogen ions raises blood acidity, and not the lactate itself, that limits exercise and it is tolerance of this higher acidity that we are really training. (See Lactate)   Biking      
Lactic Acid - A substance formed during anaerobic metabolism when the body breaks down glucose for energy, lactic acid is produced. (See Lactate)   Biking      
Lacustrine - A term that describes anything of, relating to, or living in lakes.     Fishing    
Lancé - A French term for "flying start."   Biking      
Lanterne Rouge - Red tail light on train’s caboose, last finisher in a race, last in general classification. Of French origin.   Biking      
Lanyard - A device to which an item is "tethered" so that it is close by when needed (e.g., glasses).     Fishing    
Lap - One trip around the track or course.   Biking      
Lapped - A rider who has fallen behind another rider by one lap of the track, course or circuit is said to have been lapped.   Biking      
Larva - The immature, aquatic, growing stage of the caddis and some other insects. Many species of caddis larva build a protective covering of fine gravel or debris to protect them in this stage. The larva is a bottom dwelling non-swimming stage of the insect.     Fishing    
Last - A boot maker’s term for the interior shape of a ski boot. Skiing        
Lasted Liner - A ski boot term used to describe the best type of liner constructed around a mold of the actual foot size for an improved fit. Skiing        
Lateral Bullet - A skier who is skiing out of control across the slopes. Skiing        
Lateral Projection - The transfer of weight from the downhill to the uphill ski while moving on a traverse. Skiing        
Lateral Upper-Cuff Adjustment - An adjustment on some ski boots that allows the user to shift the upper boot. Useful for bowlegged or knock-kneed people who need to adjust their upper boot to the angle of their lower legs. Skiing        
Laughing Group - A group of cyclists far behind the leaders, usually the last group. (See Grupetto)   Biking      
LBS - Short for Local Bike Shop.   Biking      
Lead Out - A racing tactic that involves a rider, usually a teammate, who intentionally sacrifices his/her chance of winning to create a break for the teammate behind him/her. The lead out sprints to take the lead rider to the front with roughly 200m to go.   Biking      
Leader - The section of monofilament line between the fly line and the fly. It is usually tapered, so that it will deliver the fly softly and away from the fly line (see knotted leader, knotless tapered leader, turn over, and monofilament).     Fishing    
Leader Material - A clear nylon or other type of monofilament. Two types are commonly used: one is the stiff or hard type, used mainly for the butt section and saltwater leaders; the second type is soft or supple monofilament, used mostly for tippets on all line weights, and for complete leaders on light weight fly lines. (See Leader, Monofilament or Tippet)     Fishing    
Leg Warmers - Full length removable leggings that turn cycling shorts into tights. Allow a rider to adjust warmth depending on changing conditions. (See Knee Warmers or Arm Warmers)   Biking      
Length - The distance from ski tip to tail. Proper length depends on height, weight, ability and skiing style. In general, longer skis tend to be faster and more stable, while shorter skis tend to be easier to control and turn.         Cross-Country Skiing
Level Line - An untapered fly line, usually floating. It is difficult to cast, a poor line for delicacy or distance, and a poor choice for an all round line.     Fishing    
Lie - Areas in a river or lake where fish hang out, commonly well-located because they are out of the main current, present cover from predators or provide a good source of insects and other food.     Fishing    
Liftie - A slang term for a ski lift operator. Skiing        
Limit Man - A term referring to a rider with the largest handicap and, thus, the greatest advantage over other riders in a race.   Biking      
Limnology - The scientific study of lakes and ponds and the plant and animal organisms that live in them.     Fishing    
Line - The path a rider takes through a turn. In general, the best line is the straightest path through the turn, resulting in the smallest amount of speed loss. (See Corner)   Biking      
Line Dressing - An old term carried over from the days of silk fly lines that refer to the oily substances used to clean lines and increase buoyancy. Modern fly lines generally only need to be cleaned with warm water and soap.     Fishing    
Line Tray - A tackle tray used to collect the coils of backing or fly line, stopping them from falling to the ground. Normally attached to the fisherman around the waist.     Fishing    
Line Weight - The weight of the first 30 feet of a fly line, used as a way to standardize fly lines in matching them to fly rods of differing stiffness.     Fishing    
Lined Out - A group of riders in a long, single file line.   Biking      
Liner - The removable, soft inner boot designed to provide both support and padding against the hard outer shell of a ski boot. Skiing        
Livebait - Any natural bait, such as a worm, maggot, or small fish, that is used live.     Fishing    
Loading the Rod - A phrase used to describe the bend put in the rod by the weight of the line as it travels through the air during the cast.     Fishing    
Loading - A term used to describe the effect of the weight of the line and the momentum of the cast upon the rod. A loaded rod is bent or loaded more with a greater casting force and a heavier line.     Fishing    
Loch-Style Fishing - Stillwater fly-fishing with teams of wet flies cast a short distance downwind from a drifting boat.     Fishing    
Long Steady Distance (LSD) - Rides done over longer durations (usually more than two hours) at hard but sustainable pace.   Biking      
Loop Connection - A method of setting up a flyline/leader rig using loops tied in each section which can be interlocked for easy changing.     Fishing    
Loop to Loop - A way to connect a fly line and a leader by making a loop at the end of the leader (perfection loop knot) and a loop attached to the end of the fly line. Loop to loop connections are sometimes made from a leader to a tippet.     Fishing    
Low Gear - A gear combination with a smaller gear ratio that allows a rider to pedal easier. On a climb, a low gear allows a rider to pedal at a higher cadence. (See Downshift)   Biking      
Low Season - A lull that happens usually between Thanksgiving and Christmas or towards the end of the ski season. Lodging and lift rates are typically available at lower prices. Skiing        
Low Water Fly - A sparsely-dressed fly on a small hook, used mostly for salmon fishing in shallow water.     Fishing    
Lug – A fitting used to connect the tubes of a bicycle frame. Lugs and tubing are joined together through brazing, a process similar to soldering or welding where a molten metal (often silver or brass) fills the space between the lug and the tube.   Biking      
Lures - A British word which means the same as the American term "streamers." Both describe a type of fly that represent a small swimming fish.     Fishing    
Lycra - Stretchy fabric typical of most road cycling clothing.   Biking      
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M Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
M23 - A men's race.   Biking      
Madison - A track race over a distance of 60km in which teams of two riders accumulate points in intermediate sprints. Named for Madison Square Garden in New York, where this type of race originated.   Biking      
Magic Carpet - A conveyor-belt like surface lift. Typically found only on smaller, bunny slopes where younger kids learn to ski and snowboard. Skiing        
Maillot Jaune - A yellow jersey worn by the leader of the Tour de France and in some other major bicycle sporting events.   Biking      
Marabou - Fluffy and soft down or underfeathers from most birds, but particularly for fly tying, marabou comes from chickens, turkeys or other domestic fowl.     Fishing    
Marathon - A long-distance cross-country mountain bike race, usually between 60 and 100 km.   Biking      
Mark - An area of the sea that offers good fishing, usually one that can be located by taking the bearings of shore features.     Fishing    
Marrow Spoon - A long, slender spoon that can be passed down the gullet of a dead fish to remove its stomach contents. It is used mainly by trout anglers to find out what the fish are actually feeding on at a given time.     Fishing    
Mash - Turning a gear slowly and awkwardly, as opposed to a smooth transition.   Biking      
Mashed Potatoes - A slang term for wet and heavy snow. Skiing        
Mass Start - Race events s in which all contestants leave the starting line at the same time.   Biking     Cross-Country Skiing
Master - A racer over 30 years old.   Biking      
Master Link - This is a special link on a bicycle chain, which can be opened without having to remove a rivet.   Biking      
Match Sprint - A track sprint between two riders over three laps.   Biking      
Matching the Hatch - An attempt by an angler to select an artificial fly that imitates the color, size, shape and behavior of natural insects that fish are feeding on at a particular time. Often when a hatch is happening, fish become very selective and refuse insects that are not the most abundant.     Fishing    
Maxillary - The rear bone of the upper jaw of a fish.     Fishing    
Mayfly - An aquatic insect found throughout the world in both still water and rivers. It is most easily identified by its sail-like upright wings and long graceful tails. Many classic trout flies imitate mayflies. Mayflies vary in size from the 3 mm tricos to the 30 mm hexagenia.     Fishing    
Measuring Line - (See Pole Line)   Biking      
Mechanical - Slang for a bike that is having mechanical problems.   Biking      
MEL - Mens elite level, above 23 years old.   Biking      
Memory Foam - A layer of foam within a ski boot designed to mold to a skier’s foot over time. Skiing        
Mend - Throwing an upstream curve into your fly line as it floats down the stream to avoid having water currents pull on it and cause unnatural movement of your fly (unnatural drift or line drag). Fish and especially trout are exquisitely sensitive to (and turned off by) movement of a insect that moves at a different rate or in a different direction than the current.     Fishing    
Metric Century - A 100-kilometer ride (62 miles).   Biking      
Micro-Fleece - An improved form of fleece with a tighter, less dense knit that cuts down on size. A great material to use for a middle layer. Skiing        
Mid-Fat Ski - Another term for an All-Mountain Ski. Skiing        
Midge - A term properly applied to the small Dipterans that trout feed on; commonly referred to as gnats. Adult's appearance is similar to mosquitoes. Midges have two wings that lie in a flat "V" shape over the back when at rest. They are also known as "the fly fisher's curse" because of their small size and trout's affinity to feeding upon them. The term "midge" is sometimes loosely applied (and incorrectly so) when referring to small mayflies.     Fishing    
Milk Run - The first run early in the day. Skiing        
Milt - The semen of a male fish; a term for the semen-filled testes and sperm ducts of a male fish, also known as soft roe.     Fishing    
Minute Man - A rider who starts one minute ahead of other racers in a time trial.   Biking      
Miss and Out - A mass start track race where the field starts together, then the last rider on each lap is pulled out until three remain to sprint out the victory.   Biking      
MJU - Mens juniors' division.   Biking      
Mogul - A mound or a rise in the trail, which is meant to be an obstacle for the rider. Also called bumps.   Biking      
Mondopoint - The standard European measurement for shoe sizes, commonly used for ski boots. The measurement is based on the mean foot length for which the shoe is suitable, measured in centimeters. Skiing        
Monocycle - (See Unicycle)   Biking      
Monofilament - A single filament or strand of nylon, primarily used for tippet material or if tapered for leaders.     Fishing    
Monoski - A type of ski with both boots attached to a single board. Monoskis became relatively popular in Europe, but never quite caught on in the United States. This term is also used to refer to the “sit-ski” used by handicapped skiers. Skiing        
Moto - Motor Official; a race referee or official on a motorcycle during the bicycle race event.   Biking      
Motor Paced - A track race where cyclists follow behind a moto. The moto blocks the wind and also pulls the cyclist along in their slipstream.   Biking      
Mountain Bike - A bicycle designed to perform optimally on dirt roads and trails. Manufacturers have created a broad range of subtypes intended for different disciplines: cross country, downhill, dual slalom, freeride, all-mountain, single speed, etc.   Biking      
Mountain Climb Classifications - Large mountain climbs are that normally classified according to their difficulty. Category 4 is the easiest, followed by Categories 3, 2, 1, and the Hors-Categorie (which is the hardest). Mountain climbs are classified according to their length and the average gradient of the road's incline.   Biking      
Mountain Cross - (See 4-cross)   Biking      
Mountains Classification - A competition in a stage race that awards points to the riders who perform the best over the various mountain stages.   Biking      
Muddler - Normally a deer hair headed fly.     Fishing    
Mudguards - Fenders.   Biking      
Musette - A cloth shoulder bag for carrying food and drinks, usually handed off to racers in feed zone. Of French origin.   Biking      
Mute Grab - Grabbing the toe edge of your snowboard between the bindings with your front hand. Similarly executed on skis by grabbing a ski’s outside edge. Skiing        
Mylar - Metallic plastic available in sheet or plaited tube form. The tubing can be used to simulate scales on the flanks or fry imitating lures/streamer flies.     Fishing    
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N Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Nail Knot - A method used to attach a leader or butt section of monofilament to the fly line, and of attaching the backing to the fly line; most commonly tied using a small diameter tube rather than a nail.     Fishing    
Nail Knot Tool - A tool used to simplify the process of tying nail knots.     Fishing    
Narrow Loop - A term that describes what the fly line should look like as it travels through the air; a narrow loop can best be described as the letter "U" turned on its side. A narrow loop is formed by using a narrow casting arc.     Fishing    
NASTAR - Short for National Standard Race, an ongoing race series in which skiers and snowboarders of all levels can compare their abilities against a national average. Skiing        
National Off-Road Bicycle Association (NORBA) - A US-based organization that sanctions national off-road races.   Biking      
Natural Break - When a rider relieves himself while riding. Also called au naturel. - A US-based organization that sanctions national off-road races.   Biking      
Natural Torsion - The ability of the thighs abdominals and ligaments to act like a twisted rubber band. Skiing        
Neap Tides - Tides that occur midway between spring tides. They have smaller rises and falls than those at other times of tire month.     Fishing    
Needle Nail Knot - Same as the nail knot except that the leader or backing runs through the center of the fly line for 3/16 to 3/8 inch, then out through the side of the fly line before the nail knot is tied; this allows the backing or the leader to come out the center of the fly line rather than along the side of it as in the nail knot.     Fishing    
Neo-Pro - A first-year pro rider.   Biking      
Neutral Section - The first few controlled miles of a road race course. In this section, no attacks allowed and the pace is generally moderate. It allows the riders a short period of warmup under controlled conditions and is used by the organizers to "parade" the race for better spectating.   Biking      
Neutral Support - Technical assistance during a race that is available to any rider regardless of team.   Biking      
Neutral Wheels - When the support vehicle in a race will provide a wheel to any rider with a flat. (See Wheels-In, Wheels-Out)   Biking      
Neutralization - The act of riding at a steady pace to maintain your relative position when an obstacle or accident has occured on the track. Also found at the start of road races to reduce the possibility of early crashes.   Biking      
Never-Ever - A first time skier or snowboarder. Skiing        
New England Ice - Ice so transparent that grass can be seen through it; very difficult skiing. Skiing        
New Nordic Norm (NNN) - A boot and binding system consisting of a short, metal rod in the toe of the boot sole and a clip-in binding to which it attaches. NNN bindings also feature raised ridges that fit into matching grooves on the soles of NNN boots for lateral control. Known for their comfortable flex and efficient ski control.         Cross-Country Skiing
Nictitating Membrane - A thin membrane that can be drawn across the eyeball to protect and clean it. Found on many fish species, including some sharks.     Fishing    
Nipples - Aluminum or brass nuts that secure a threaded spoke to a rim.   Biking      
No One Else in the Photo - A racer with a substantial lead. Refers to a finish line photo that shows no other riders in the background because of such a huge lead.   Biking      
No-Fall Zone - An area where falling will likely lead to serious injury; the initial entry into a steep chute is often described as a no-fall zone. Skiing        
Non-Drive Side - The side of the bike without the drive train. The left side when standing over the bike looking toward the front wheel.   Biking      
Noodle - To ride easy without working to hard. Noodling typically happens on a recovery ride.   Biking      
Nordic (Double) Camber - Ski curvature characterized by a pronounced arch, a high central section and a "wax pocket" underfoot. The ski base is held up off of the snow's surface slightly by the shape and flex of the ski. The center of the wax pocket is pressed into the snow for traction during the kick phase of classic striding. General touring and metal-edge touring skis have Nordic camber.         Cross-Country Skiing
Nordic Combined - An Olympic and World Cup event involving combined competition in jumping and a subsequent cross-country ski race. Racers start the ski race based on how well they jumped, and the first one across the line wins.         Cross-Country Skiing
Nordic Integrated System (NIS) - Developed by Rottefella, this variation of the New Nordic Norm (NNN) boot/binding system features a different binding and ski interface.         Cross-Country Skiing
Nordic Norm - A traditional 3-pin boot/binding connection. The boots have tonguelike extensions on the toes with 3 holes in the undersides. The extensions fit over 3 vertical pins on each binding, over which a curved bale is squeezed down to hold them in place. (See 3-Pin)         Cross-Country Skiing
Nordic Skiing - Most commonly used to refer to cross-country skiing, but in fact can be any form of skiing where the heel of the boot releases from the binding. Along with cross-country, common forms of Nordic skiing include backcountry touring, telemark skiing and ski jumping. Skiing        
Nymph - An immature form of insects. Fly fishers are mostly concerned with the nymphs of aquatic insects.     Fishing    
Nymph - Immature form of insects; as fly fishers, we are concerned only with the nymphs of aquatic insects.     Fishing    
Nymphing - A word describing fish that are feeding on nymphs.     Fishing    
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O Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Oesophagus - The gullet of a fish. Operculum in bony fish, the uppermost and largest of the gill cover bones.     Fishing    
Off Season - The training or rest period in between race seasons.   Biking      
Off the Back (OTB)- When a rider or riders cannot keep pace with the main group and lag behind.   Biking      
Off the Front - When a rider takes part in a breakaway.   Biking      
Off-Camber - A corner or curve in the trail, which forces the cyclist to the outside of the turn.   Biking      
Off-Piste - Out-of-bounds; off a trail and other areas not marked on trail map; sometimes used in place of backcountry. Skiing        
Offset - The distance from the front wheel and the fork.   Biking      
Off-track Skiing - Skiing on unprepared snow whether previously skied on or not.         Cross-Country Skiing
Olympic Sprint - A track sprint race of three laps with three riders starting together. Each rider pulls for one lap then pulls off, leaving the last rider to sprint for the line.   Biking      
Omnium - A stage race or series of races scored on points rather than overall time. Unlike a stage race, omniums often allow riders to pick and choose the races they want to enter.   Biking      
On the Rivet - Riding at the limit of one’s ability. Refers to riding on the tip of the saddle, where there was traditionally a rivet securing the leather cover.   Biking      
Open Loop - A term used to describe what the fly line looks like as it travels through the air during a poor cast; caused by a very wide casting arc.     Fishing    
Orthotics - Custom-made supports worn in shoes to help neutralize biomechanical imbalances in the feet or legs.   Biking      
Osmosis - The process by which a fish takes in or excretes water through its skin in order to maintain the correct balance of salts and fluids within its body tissues.     Fishing    
Otoliths - Oval, stone-like structures within the ears of a fish or other vertebrate, which help it to maintain its balance; also known as ear stones.     Fishing    
Out-of-Bounds - Ski terrain located outside the boundaries of a ski resort. (See Backcountry or Off-Piste) Skiing        
Ova - The eggs of a fish or other creature. The mass of eggs within the ovarian membranes of a female fish is termed hard roe.     Fishing    
Ovaries - The reproductive glands (gonads) of a female fish, which are responsible for the production of eggs.     Fishing    
Overall - (See General Classification)   Biking      
Overgear - Using a gear ratio too big for the terrain or level of fitness.   Biking      
Overtraining - Deep-seated fatigue, both physical and mental, caused by training at an intensity or volume too great for adaptation.   Biking      
Oviducts - The ducts between the ovaries and vent in most female fish, along which the ripe eggs pass during spawning.     Fishing    
Oviparous Fish - Fish that lay eggs from which the young later hatch. All skates, some sharks and rays, and most bony fish are oviparous.     Fishing    
Oxygen Debt - The amount of oxygen that must be consumed to pay back the deficit incurred by anaerobic work.   Biking      
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p Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Paceline - A group of riders working together to take advantage of the draft.   Biking      
Pacing - When one rider sets a pace for other rides to keep up with. Pacing is not allowed in individual time trials but it is allowed in team time trails and road racing.   Biking      
Pack - A term that describes the main body of riders. (See Peloton)   Biking      
Pack Fodder - Riders in a race that are just filling out the field with no real hope of winning. Also called "pack fill."   Biking      
Packed powder - Soft, fresh snow that has been groomed or packed down by ski traffic. Skiing        
Palmarès - French term for the list of a racer's best results and accomplishments.   Biking      
Palmer - A method for wrapping a hackle feather over a section of the fly's body. When it is retrieved through the water it "pushes" the water, thus causing shock waves that help fish locate the fly.     Fishing    
Panache - Flamboyance, verve, daring, style as displayed in road racing.   Biking      
Panfish - Any small American freshwater food fish, such as a sunfish or perch, that is fished for by anglers but is too small to be considered a true gamefish.     Fishing    
Panniers - Large bike bags used by touring cyclists or commuters to carry gear. Panniers attach to racks that place them low on each side of the rear wheel, and sometimes the front wheel.   Biking      
Parabolic Skis - (See Shaped Skis) Skiing        
Parabolic-Action Rod - Another term for a through-action rod.     Fishing    
Parachute - A type of dry fly where the hackle is wound horizontally around the base of the wing like a parachute instead of vertically around the hook of the fly. This drops the body of the fly down into the surface film of the water. It is usually most effective in medium to slow moving waters.     Fishing    
Parallel Turn - A turn when both skis remain parallel throughout the turn. Skiing        
Parcours - The race course. Of French origin.   Biking      
Paris-Roubaix - Classic race run from north of Paris to Roubaix, near the Belgian border. Characterized by numerous sections of very rough cobblestones.   Biking      
Park - (See Terrain Park) Skiing        
Parr - Young salmon and trout up to two years old, distinguishable from smolts by the dark bars (parr marks) on their sides.     Fishing    
Pattern - The fixed design of material and position of parts which make up an artificial fly; sometimes called its recipe. (See Fly Pattern)     Fishing    
Pave - French word for cobblestone. (See Cobblestone)   Biking      
Peacock Sword - A feather from a peacock with bushy herl-like barbules, commonly used for tails.     Fishing    
Peak - A relatively short period during which maximum performance is achieved.   Biking      
Pectoral Fins - The pair of fins just behind the head of a fish.     Fishing    
Pedal Clearance - The amount of lean angle a bicycle can have without digging a pedal. (See Cornerning Clearance)   Biking      
Pedal - What a rider will put their foot on to drive the chain that will move the wheels.   Biking      
Pedaling Squares - Pedaling with a sloppy and inefficient looking style, as opposed to a more fluid and circular style. When a rider is tired and looking ragged on the bike, she is said to be "pedaling squares."   Biking      
Pelagic Fish - Fish that live at the surface, in the upper waters, of the open ocean.     Fishing    
Peleton - The name for the main pack or group of riders. Of French origin.   Biking      
Pelvic Fins - The pair of fins on the lower body of a fish; also called ventral fins.     Fishing    
Perfection Loop - A knot often used to create a loop in a piece of monofilament, frequently at the butt end of a leader for the loop to loop connection.     Fishing    
Periodization - The process of dividing training into specific phases by weeks or months.   Biking      
pH - The acidic or alkaline measurement of a liquid. Pure water has a pH of 7; water with a pH of less than 7 is acidic, and water with a pH of more than 7 is alkaline.     Fishing    
Pharyngeal Teeth - Teeth at the back of the throat, found in many fish species such as the members of the carp family. These teeth crush food as it is swallowed.     Fishing    
Pick-Up & Lay Down - A fly fishing cast using only a single back cast. The line is lifted from the water and a back cast made, followed by a forward cast which is allowed to straighten and fall to the water, completing the cast.     Fishing    
Pin Head (Pinner) - A telemark skier; refers to the 3-pin style bindings used in telemark skiing.         Cross-Country Skiing
Pinch Flat - When an inner tube is squeezed between the rim and the tire, resulting in two holes that resemble a snakebite.   Biking      
Pipe - (See Halfpipe) Skiing        
Pisciculture - The breeding and rearing of fish, for example in hatcheries and fish farms.     Fishing    
Piste - A prepared route down a mountainside. Known as a trail in North America. Of French origin. Skiing        
Pit Zips - Jacket zippers located under the armpits allowing the user to circulate air through jacket on warmer days. Skiing        
Pits - Places along a race course where riders can stop to make repairs.   Biking      
Pixie Gear - A very low gear ratio, one to one or less. (See Granny Gear)   Biking      
Pizza - Slang term for a elementary skiing technique where skis are tilted together like a slice of pizza to snowplow down a slope. Skiing        
Play - Unwanted movement in a bearing assembly. If unchecked, it can cause a loss of power and eventually damage to the whole system.   Biking      
Plough Parallel - A turn that starts with the merest hint of a plough on the outside ski, and at any stage during the turn the uphill inside ski can be brought in parallel. Skiing        
Pneumatic – Strictly speaking, something operating with air pressure. Pneumatic tires (air-filled tires) became popular (and practical) in the 1890s. They provided a smoother ride than their predecessor, solid rubber tires.   Biking      
Poach - General term for riding where you are not supposed to be. Ranges from jumping into an organized ride without registering or riding on trails closed to bikes.   Biking      
Point Fly - The lead fly in a two-fly rig. Usually a section of tippet is tied to the eye or the bend of the hook to connect to the dropper fly.     Fishing    
Point-to-Point Race - A one-day race in which the route travels between two separate points. The most prestigious of these races are known as “Classics."   Biking      
Points Classification - A competition within a stage race based on points earned at intermediate sprints and the finishes.   Biking      
Points Race - A race where periodic sprints award points to the top finishers. The final winner is the rider that accumulated the most points.   Biking      
Polarized Sun Glasses - Sunglasses with iodized lenses that block incident light (glare) and thus allow anglers to better see beneath the surface glare of water.     Fishing    
Pole Grip - The handle on a ski pole. Skiing       Cross-Country Skiing
Pole Line - The innermost line on the velodrome surface, used to measure the length of the track; also called the measuring line.   Biking      
Pole Plant - A crucial part of anticipation during the process of learning new techniques. Skiing        
Pole Position - The bicyclist at the head of the peleton in a race with a mass start.   Biking      
Poles - Crucial accessories for a pole plant and to help skiers maintain balance. Skiing        
Polka-Dot Jersey - The jersey awarded to the leader and eventually to the winner of the mountains classification at the Tour de France.   Biking      
Poly Yarn - A synthetic yarn made from polypropylene. Used in fly tying, often for parachute posts and wings on dry flies.     Fishing    
Polyshoot Backing - A smooth, flexible non-tangling backing for shooting lines.     Fishing    
Poma - A surface lift straddled by skiers, with a platter to sit on. Often called a button lift, disc or platter lift. Skiing        
Pool - A segment of a river or stream with greater depth and slower current, making it safer from predators bird and animal and where swimming against the current is reduced.     Fishing    
Popped - Losing all physical power. (See Blow Up)   Biking      
Popper - A topwater lure, made of painted balsa wood, cork or deer hair, with a flat face that causes it to make a popping sound when retrieved. It is commonly used for warmwater panfish, bass and some saltwater species.     Fishing    
Potamodromous Fish - Fish that migrate regularly within large freshwater systems.     Fishing    
Powder Skis - Designed to float atop powder, these skis are particularly popular in areas that receive frequent major storms. Extra-wide waist widths – ranging from 105mm to 130mm – keep the skis from sinking deep into fresh snow, but they can be challenging and sluggish to control on groomed runs. Skiing        
Powder - Fresh, dry and lightweight snow that is considered the Holy Grail for many skiers and snowboarders. Large amounts of fresh powder make for epic skiing conditions. Skiing        
Powderhound - A person who insatiably seeks the best powder skiing throughout the season. Skiing        
Power Side - Refers to the side where the skier is using their pole.         Cross-Country Skiing
Power Strap - A Velcro strap at the top end of a ski boot used to make sure that the top of the boot gives a snug fit connecting to the calf and shin. Skiing        
Power - The combination of speed and strength.   Biking      
Predatory Fish - Any fish that prey on other living creatures, particularly other fish.     Fishing    
Preload - The adjustable spring tension in a suspension fork or rear shock. It determines how far the suspension compresses under body weight and how much travel remains to absorb impacts.   Biking      
Premaxillary - The front bone of the upper jaw of a fish.     Fishing    
Preoperculum - In bony fish, the bone at the rear of the cheek, just in front of the gill cover.     Fishing    
Presentation - The act of putting the fly on the water and offering it to the fish; the variety of presentations is infinite, and changes with each fishing situation. The object is to present the fly in a manner similar to the natural insect or food form that you are imitating.     Fishing    
Presta Valve – High-performance tires (usually less than 1 ¼ inch) that use a narrow, European-style air valve. Asmall metal cap is built into the Presta valve that must be unscrewed air can be pumped into the tube.   Biking      
Prime - A mid-race sprint. Usually in a criterium, where the first rider across the line wins a prize.   Biking      
Prologue - A short race or time trial that is held on the beginning day of a stage race, such as in the Tour de France.   Biking      
Protein - In the diet, protein is required for tissue growth and repair. Composed of structural units called amino acids. Protein is not a significant energy source unless not enough calories and carbohydrate are consumed. One gram of protein equals four calories.   Biking      
PSI - Abbreviation for pounds per square inch. A unit of measure for tire inflation and air pressure in some suspensions.   Biking      
Pull, Pull Through - To make an effort at the front of a group of riders.   Biking      
Pulley - Small wheels on rear deraillerus that allow the chain to move freely.   Biking      
Puncture -A flat tire.   Biking      
Punter - An ordinary rider.   Biking      
Pupa - In insects, the transition stage between the larva and the adult; to fly-fishers, caddis pupa are the most important of these insects.     Fishing    
Pursuit - A track time trial from a standing start where two riders race against each other, starting on opposite sides of the track. (See 4000m or 3000m)   Biking      
Push - A place with not enough traction or too-steep a pitch, on a mountain bike trail, that requires the riders to get off their bikes and carry them.   Biking      
Pusher - A rider who pedals in a large gear at a relatively slow cadence, relying on the gear size for speed.   Biking      
Pyloric Caeca - Fleshy, fingerlike tubes at the junction between the stomach and intestine of a fish. They produce enzymes that play a part in the digestive process.     Fishing    
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Q Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Quad -Slang term for a chair lift carrying four people. Skiing        
Quadrate - The bone that joins the upper jaw of a fish to its skull.     Fishing    
Quadriceps - The large muscle in front of the thigh, the strength of which helps determine a cyclist's ability to pedal with power.   Biking      
Quarterpipe - A halfpipe divided in half lengthways and used for a single, often massive, aerial trick. Skiing        
Quick-Release - Skewer used to secure a wheel to a frame with a clasping lever; provides for quick removal of the wheel.   Biking      
Quick-Release Lever - A lever typically used on a wheel hub or seat post that replaces a lock nut that allows for easy removal or adjustment without having to use a tool.   Biking      
Quill - Section of a primary or secondary feather used in fly tying.     Fishing    
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R Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
RAAM - The Race Across America; an annual race since 1982 that begins on the West Coast and finished on the East.   Biking      
Racing Boot - Designed for racing, these boots are stiffer and often more narrow than the average boot. Skiing        
Racing Ski - Typically stiffer, longer, and narrower than the average ski. Sometimes known as Slalom or Giant Slalom skis. Skiing        
Rack Bike - A bicycle that has only a single-speed gear and no brakes.   Biking      
Rack - A frame that can be attached over the rear or front wheel and to which panniers can be attached. It is also the name for a device that can carry a bicycle on a motor vehicle.   Biking      
Radial Lacing - A type of wheel built with spokes that run directly from the hub to the rim without crossing.   Biking      
Rail It - To ride fast and cleanly through a corner.   Biking      
Rail - A bar, typically metal, built to be slid up by skiers and snowboarders. Almost exclusively found in a terrain park. Skiing        
Rail - The ability to ride fast and clean, without sliding, through a corner.   Biking      
Rainbow Jersey - A rainbow-striped jersey awarded to world champions in each of cycling's disciplines.   Biking      
Rake - (See Offset)   Biking      
Randonee Skiing - A special touring event with required checkpoints. Of French origin.   Biking     Cross-Country Skiing
Randonneur - A rider who participates in randonnees.   Biking      
Randonneurs USA - The event-sanctioning, record-keeping and informational organization for American randonneurs.   Biking      
Rate of Perceived Exertion - Using subjective perception to measure effort (versus a heart rate monitor or power meter).   Biking      
Rays - The soft or spiny supporting elements of fish fins.     Fishing    
Reach Cast - A cast used for adding extra slack in the line, or when fishing downstream, in order to provide a more natural float.     Fishing    
Reach - The combined length of a bike’s top tube and stem, which determines the rider’s distance to the handlebar.   Biking      
Red Kite - A red flag that marks the last kilometer of a road race.   Biking      
Redd - The hollowed-out nest in a streambed where a fish deposits its eggs, a behavior typical to most salmonids.     Fishing    
Reel Seat - A mechanism that holds the reel to the rod, usually using locking metal rings or sliding bands.     Fishing    
Regular Season - Dates vary in different regions, but regular season lift prices are higher than low season's and lower than during the holiday and high seasons. Often includes January and March. Skiing        
Repechage - A series of races that allows losers of previous heats, to race against each other to gain re-entry into the competition. This is usually in sprint races.   Biking      
Repetition - A hard effort in an interval workout. Also, one complete movement in a weight-training exercise; rep for short.   Biking      
Resistance Trainer - A stationary training device into which the bike is clamped. Pedaling resistance increases with pedaling speed to simulate actual riding. Also known as an indoor, wind, fluid, or mag trainer.   Biking      
Retrieve - The method of stripping in the fly line that gives the fly action. Also, a term used in describing fly reels, as to whether they are left hand or right hand retrieve.     Fishing    
Retro Grouch - A cyclist who prefers older and, usually, simpler components such as friction shifters.   Biking      
Reverse Camber - The arc formed in a ski or snowboard by applying pressure down on it from above. The more reverse camber is applied to a ski/board, the shorter becomes the radius of the arc. Short radius turns are made for short turns and long radius turns for long turns. (See Carving) Skiing        
Reversed-Taper Handle - A rod handle that tapers towards the butt end.     Fishing    
Riffle - A small rapid in a river or stream.     Fishing    
Rim - The circular piece of aluminum or carbon fiber forming the outer circumference of a wheel that is attached to a hub with spokes and that a tire is attached to. A rim will be either clincher or tubular, and its depth can vary dramatically.   Biking      
Rim Brake - A brake that stops or slows a wheel when its pads are pressed against the sides of the wheel rim.   Biking      
Riparian - A term that describes anything of, inhabiting, or situated on a riverbank; often used in connection with ownership and fishing rights.     Fishing    
Rip-Rap - Broken rock, deposited loosely on a riverbed or on the banks to help prevent erosion. It is also used to form breakwaters and embankments.     Fishing    
Rise - The action of a fish as it comes to the surface of the water to feed. Different kinds of rises (splashy, dimpled, etc.) suggest different kinds of feeding and may suggest different kinds of insects.     Fishing    
Riser Handlebars - A type of mountain bike handlebar, which bends up at the ends.   Biking      
Road Bike - A bicycle designed for riding on the road and built for speed. It has dropped handlebars, for aerodynamic purposes, narrow tires and is lightweight.   Biking      
Road Clearance - (See Cornering Clearance)   Biking      
Road Race - A mass start race that is ridden on pavement.   Biking      
Road Rash - Any skin abrasion resulting from a fall.   Biking      
Rock Dodge - Being able to steer the handlebars quickly to avoid obstacles in the road.   Biking      
Rod Flex - The manner in which the rod bends during the cast during the acceleration phase of the cast. Tip-Flex rods bend primarily through the tip section, Mid-Flex rods bend down into the middle section, and Full-flex rods bend throughout the entire rod during the cast.     Fishing    
Rod Socket - (See Butt Pad)     Fishing    
Roe - A collective term for fish milt and ova.     Fishing    
Roll Cast - A casting technique that is used when a back cast is not possible. The line is made to loop in front of the angler and if properly executed it "rolls" out to present the fly.     Fishing    
Rollers - An indoor training device consisting of three long cylinders connected by belts. Both bike wheels roll on these cylinders so that balancing is much like actual riding.   Biking      
Rollerskis - An off-snow training method for cross-country skiers. Skis are short (2-3 ft.) metal shafts with rubber or polyethylene wheels attached to both ends. Used primarily on pavement although some models work off-road.         Cross-Country Skiing
Rolling Resistance - The energy needed to deform a tire when it contacts the ground.   Biking      
Rope Tow - A common surface lift, typically found running up beginner bunny slopes. Skiing        
Rotating - The action of each rider going to the front of a group and riding at the front to keep the pace high.   Biking      
Rotation - Refers to the rotation of the upper body (vertical axis) or lower body (horizontal axis). Skiing        
Rouleur - Used to describe riders who can ride all day over rolling parcours.   Biking      
Royal Christie - A flat turn on an uphill ski while the downhill ski is lifted high in the air behind the skier. Skiing        
RPE - Short for Rate of Perceived Exertion.   Biking      
Run - A fast-flowing stretch of river; Also, the movement of fish inshore or upstream for spawning or the flight of a hooked fish trying to escape.     Fishing    
Running Line - A thin line attached to the back of a shooting taper (shooting head) line. A running line may be a 20 to 30 pound monofilament, braided nylon, narrow floating or sinking line, or other material and usually 100 feet in length.     Fishing    
Runout - A long, flat run that links trails back to the ski lift. Skiing        
Ruts - Tracks created by repetitive skiing that can make for treacherous ski conditions. Skiing        
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S Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
S Cast - A "s"-shaped casting method used to put deliberate and controlled slack into a cast; used in getting a drag-free float and in conjunction with mending line. (See Drag, Dead Drift or Mending Line)     Fishing    
Sinking Line - A flyline design to sink below the surface of the water for getting a wet fly or streamer down deeper. Can be found with different sink rates for different fishing styles.     Fishing    
Sinking-Tip Line - A hybrid flyline design which is floating for most of its length except for a short section of sinking line at the end.     Fishing    
Saddle – A bike seat.   Biking      
Saddle Bag - A bag that mounts underneath a bicycle seat allowing a rider to carry tools, spare tubes and other ride essentials.   Biking      
Saddle Sores - Skin problems in the crotch that develop from chafing caused by pedaling action. Sores can range from tender raw spots to boil-like lesions if infection occurs.   Biking      
Saddle Time - Time spent cycling.   Biking      
Safety Bicycle – The basis for today's bike frames. A safety bicycle features wheels of equal size in the front and rear and a chain-powered drive train that separates the pedals from the wheels. Coined in 1884 by John Starlely, who developed the diamond-frame bicycle.   Biking      
Safety Line - A line that runs around the inside of the track to help the riders to stay on the flattest part of the track.   Biking      
Sag Wagon - A motor vehicle that follows a group of riders, carrying equipment and lending assistance in the event of difficulty. Also called the broom wagon.   Biking      
Salinity - The level of dissolved salts in the water. Freshwater normally contains less than 0.2% salts; brackish water contains up to 3% salts; and saltwater contains more than 3%.     Fishing    
Salomon Nordic System (SNS) - Salomon's proprietary boot/binding connection system featuring a single, wide binding ridge and matching sole groove as compared to the twin ridges and matching grooves found on NNN bindings and boots. Because of this difference in design, SNS and NNN systems are not compatible.         Cross-Country Skiing
Saltwater Taper - A weight-forward fly line that is similar to a bass bug taper. (See Weight Forward or Bass Bug Taper)     Fishing    
Saltwater - Water containing a high level of dissolved salts.     Fishing    
Schrader Valve - A valve identical to those used on car tires. Used mostly on mountain bikes.   Biking      
Schuss - To ski straight down the hill without turning. Skiing        
Schwag - Free gear competitors get when they race. May include water bottles, jerseys, food or more expensive toys.   Biking      
Scorcher - A name given to fast cyclists of the 1890s.   Biking      
Scour - Erosion caused by flowing water; a shallow, fast-flowing, gravel-bottomed stretch of river.     Fishing    
Scramble Leg - The first leg of a relay race.         Cross-Country Skiing
Scratch Races - These are races where the last man over the line each time is out of the race.   Biking      
Scratch Winner - The fastest rider in a time trial race.   Biking      
Scud - A small, freshwater and shrimp-like crustacean that is present in most trout waters and serves as a food source for trout.     Fishing    
Sea Trout - A migratory brown trout.     Fishing    
Sea-Run - A term describing brown, cutthroat and rainbow trout that hatch in fresh water, migrate to the sea to mature and return to fresh water to spawn. Rainbow trout (in the Pacific Northwest and Great Lakes) are the best known sea-run trout; these are called steelhead.     Fishing    
Season - The competitive racing portion of the year. Specifics vary depending on the region or discipline, but a typical season will start in February and extend into early October.   Biking      
Seat Cluster - The junction on the frame of the seat tube, seat stays and top tube.   Biking      
Seat Collar - The circular clamp (or integrated part of the seat tube) that secures the seatpost to the frame.   Biking      
Seat Post - A removable post that fits into the seat tube.   Biking      
Seat Stays - Tubes that extend from the seat cluster to the rear dropouts.   Biking      
Sedges - Waterside plants or flies which belong to the Trichoptera order of insects.     Fishing    
Seducer Flies - Similar to the Key Style fly but uses a long hook shank covered in hackle to create more disturbance in the water. It also falls to the surface quietly as to not spook the fish. Ideal for redfish, striped bass, snook and other species that prefer slow-moving flies.     Fishing    
Self Assessment - Deciding which of the five grades of skier you fit into. Skiing        
Seminal Vesicle - A small gland that adds nutrient fluid to the milt of a male fish during spawning.     Fishing    
Set - A specific number of repetitions, used in intervals or weight training.   Biking      
Setting an Edge - The biting of an edge into the snow, in preparation for the next turn. Skiing        
Setting the Hook - A term used when anglers apply an upward motion of the fly rod to make sure the hook penetrates the fish's mouth successfully.     Fishing    
Sew Ups -( See Tubular Tires)   Biking      
Shank - The long, straight part of the hook between the eye and the bend.     Fishing    
Shaped Skis - The hourglass shape of today's modern ski. Shaped skis are wider in the tip and tail and narrower in the waist, providing less effort to turn and itiniate a carve. The degree of a shaped ski depends on how much sidecut the ski has. Skiing        
Shell - The hard plastic outer portion of a ski boot. Skiing        
Shelled - Left behin; being dropped.   Biking      
Shifter - The mechanism on a bicycle for changing the gear ratio. Used for alternating between gears.   Biking      
Shock Absorber - A device that absorbs and cushions the impact of a wheel going over an obstacle, which makes for a smoother ride.   Biking      
Shoe Covers - Lycra covers for shoes meant to increase aerodynamics and/or protect feet from the elements.   Biking      
Shooting Head - The process of increasing your fly cast by releasing an extra length of fly line (usually held in your non-casting hand) during the forward/presentation part of the cast. This technique allows a fly angler to false cast a shorter segment of line and then only at the time of the final forward cast to bring a longer segment of line into play.     Fishing    
Short Track - A mountain bike cross-country race run on a very short course and usually lasting less than a half hour.   Biking      
Shovel - The front end of a ski, which often bows out to a larger shovel shape to avoid sinking into snow. Skiing        
Shredding - Slang for snowboarding. Skiing        
Sidecut - The arcs on each side of a ski or snowboard that dictates the ski/board's turning radius. The larger the sidecut, the sharper the turn. Skiing       Cross-Country Skiing
Sideslip - A technique for descending a hill by sliding down sideways on ski edges; often used to control speed. Skiing        
Sidestep -A technique for ascending a hill using sideways footing. Skiing        
Single Action - The typical fly reel where a single turn of the handle causes one turn of the reel spool. Almost all high quality fly reels are single action.     Fishing    
Single Speed – A bike with only one gear (not to be confused with a coaster brake). Single speeds are often preferred by the more serious rider. One gear means less weight and a faster ride.   Biking      
Singletrack - A trail that is only wide enough for one bicycle at a time.   Biking      
Sink Rate - The speed at which a sinking fly line sinks; there are at least 6 different sink rates for fly lines, from very slow to extremely fast.     Fishing    
Sink Tip - A fly line that has a floating line combined with a sinking tip. This style of line is used for underwater presentation of flies in fast water or in some still water fishing situations.     Fishing    
Sink-and-Draw - A method of fishing in which the lure, fly or bait is made to rise and fall alternately during the retrieve by raising and lowering the rod tip.     Fishing    
Sinkant - A liquid applied to flies to make them sink.     Fishing    
Sinking Fly Line - A fly line in which the entire length of the line sinks beneath the surface of the water.     Fishing    
Sintered Base - A ski or snowboard based formed by molding polyethylene with pressure and heat, but without melting it. The result is a porous, abrasion-resistant and wax-absorbent surface. Sintered bases tend to be more expensive than extruded bases but outperform when properly waxed. Skiing       Cross-Country Skiing
Sit on a Wheel - To ride in someone's draft.   Biking      
Sitting In - Coming up very close behind the rider that is directly in front of you.   Biking      
Sitting Up - When a rider is no longer in a tucked position.   Biking      
Sitzmark - A large indentation in a track or open area created by a fallen skier.         Cross-Country Skiing
Six-Pack - Slang term for a chair lift carrying six people. Skiing        
Skate Skiing - A cross-country skiing technique where the skier keeps the tips apart and the tails together and gets the kick by pushing off the inside edge of alternating skis. Also called skating or freestyle skiing, this form of skiing is highly aerobic and can be very fast.         Cross-Country Skiing
Skating - Pushing off with one ski and sliding with the other to move along a flat surface. Skiing        
Skewers - Metal rods that clamp a wheel onto a bicycle using a lever or nuts. (See Quick Release)   Biking      
Ski Boards - Extremely short skis. Also known as snowblades. Skiing        
Ski Brake - A required attachment for ski bindings designed to stop a ski from shooting downhill after being detached. Skiing        
Ski Mountaineering - (See Alpine Touring)         Cross-Country Skiing
Ski Orienteering - A cross-country discipline in which the skier must locate a series of control points with the aid of a topographical map and compass.         Cross-Country Skiing
Ski Patrol - Trained skiers and snowboarders responsible for slope safety, including clearing areas of possible avalanche danger after a storm, marking dangerous obstacles on/near a trail and assisting injured riders down a mountain. Skiing        
Skid - When a tire loses traction on the dirt or road, which causes the bike to slide.   Biking      
Skier’s Left - The area to the left of someone skiing downhill. Skiing        
Skier’s Right - The area to the right of someone skiing downhill. Skiing        
Ski-In - Accommodations that can be reached from the ski area via skis or snowboard. Skiing        
Skijoring - A smaller version of dog-sledding, in which a set of dog (or a horse) pulls a skier. Skiing        
Skinny Skis - Another name for cross-country skis.         Cross-Country Skiing
Skins - Strips of synthetic material that are temporarily affixed to the bottoms of skis or splitboards for traction. Usually used in the backcountry for sustained uphill climbing without slipping backwards. Can be affixed with adhesives, clips or a combination of both to the entire length of the ski or just in the kick zone (kicker skins). Skiing       Cross-Country Skiing
Skinsuit - Combined shorts and jersey that closely hug the rider’s body and make the rider more aerodynamic.   Biking      
Ski-Out - Accommodations from which it’s possible to ski or snowboard from the door to the lifts. Skiing        
Skis - Two planks with attached bindings and metal edges that allow people to enjoy winter. Skiing        
Ski-Walk Adjustment - An adjustment on some ski boots that allows the upper cuff to hinge backward, giving room for a more natural walking motion when skis are taken off. Skiing        
Slalom - A form of downhill skiing where racers ski downhill on a course with tightly spaced gates that must be passed using short, quick turns. (See Giant Slalom) Skiing        
Sling - To help another rider and transfer momentum by grabbing hands and swinging. Used in the Madison when riders exchange places. (See Accordian)   Biking      
Slingshot - (See Accordian or Sling)   Biking      
Slinky - (See Accordian or Sling)   Biking      
Slip - A narrow strip of feather. Slips are widely used in fly tying.     Fishing    
Slipstream - (See Draft)   Biking      
Sloping Top Tube - Top tube that slopes from the headtube down to the seat tube.   Biking      
Slow Twitch - Muscle fiber that is characterized by its ability to contract slower and for long periods of time. Uses primarily fat for fuel. Endurance athletes tend to have more slow-twitching muscle fiber than fast-twitching.   Biking      
Small Gear - A gear combination that results in a lower gear ratio. (See Low Gear)   Biking      
Small Ring - The smallest chainring.   Biking      
Smolt - A young salmon or sea trout, silver in color on its first journey to the sea.     Fishing    
Snakebite - A type of flat tire that occurs when the inner tube is pinched against the rim after hitting a sharp object. (See Pinched Flat)   Biking      
Snap - The ability to accelerate quickly.   Biking      
Snow Plow - When a skier is going downhill, they put the tips of their skies together in order to slow themselves down.         Cross-Country Skiing
Snowboarding - The alpine equivalent to surfing. Skiing        
Snowcat - A tracked vehicle used for moving around snowy, mountainous areas; often the very machines that groom ski trails, but also used to transport riders into the backcountry for cat skiing. Skiing        
Snowplow - A V-shaped beginner's turn that helps control speed. (See Pizza, Stem or Wedge) Skiing        
Snowskate - Similar to a skateboard deck without wheels, designed to be ridden on snow for freestyle tricks. Skiing        
Soft Pedal - To pedal without much effort or coast.   Biking      
Soft Tail - A mountain bike that has rear suspension.   Biking      
Softgoods - A Ccatch-all term used to classify ski and snowboard clothing, including jackets, gloves, long underwear and hats. Skiing        
Soigneur - A racer’s attendant who takes care of food preparation, transportation and massage/physical therapy. Of French origin.   Biking      
Spawn - The behavior of fish where females deposit eggs (also called spawn) on various surfaces and the male produces necessary milt to ultimately turn the eggs into fry.     Fishing    
Speed - The ability to accelerate quickly and maintain a fast cadence for brief periods.   Biking      
Speedwork - A general term for intervals and other high-velocity training, such as sprints, time trials and motorpacing.   Biking      
Spey - A particular casting technique using special two-handed rods and a modified roll cast. It is named after a river in Scotland where it was developed.     Fishing    
Spider - The four- or five-armed star-shaped extensions at the end of a crankset that make it possible to mount chainrings.   Biking      
Spin - Pedaling quickly and smoothly, as opposed to mashing.   Biking      
Spin Out - When the rear wheel completely loses traction in a turn, causing the bike to slide out from underneath the rider. This typically results in a crash.   Biking      
Spindle - The axle that the crankset is attached too. The spindle passes through and is supported by the bottom bracket bearings.   Biking      
Spinner Fall - The act when mayfly of a particular sub-species go into the spinner stage and create a feeding frenzy.     Fishing    
Spinner - The last stage of a mayfly. The spinner is an easy target for feeding fish.     Fishing    
Split Cane Rods - Fly rods constructed of six pieces of split cane bamboo, which are triangularly shaped, tapered and glued together. Less common among modern anglers, split cane rods are thought to have originated in the U.S. in the middle of the 19th century.     Fishing    
Spoke Key - A small wrench that is used to adjust the tension on the spokes.   Biking      
Spoke Wrench - (See Spoke Key)   Biking      
Spokes - Pieces of wire specially designed to connect the hub to the rim.   Biking      
Spool - The part of a fly reel that revolves and holds the backing and the fly line; may be purchased separately from the fly reel.     Fishing    
Spring Creek - A creek or stream that gets its water from a ground flow or spring sources, rather than glacier/snow melt or surface run-off. Spring creeks are generally at a temperature of the average rainfall temperature and usually do not warm significantly in the summer nor freeze in the winter.     Fishing    
Spring Tides - Tides that occur around the time of full and new moons. They have larger rises and falls than those at other times of the month.     Fishing    
Sprint Classification - (See Points Classification)   Biking      
Sprint - A high-speed race, usually over a short distance. Also, the final high-speed dash for the finish line in race of any distance.   Biking      
Sprinters Lane - The inner area on a cycling track bounded by the pole line and the sprinters line which marks the territory within which cyclists must obey certain rules while sprinting for the finish.   Biking      
Sprocket - The rear cog, normally a smaller toothed ring, which fits onto the rear wheel; also called a cog or cogwheel.   Biking      
Squirrel - A unstable rider who moves erratically without holding a line in the peloton.   Biking      
Stack Up - A phrase that describes when one rider falls, resulting in a line of riders crashing into him and causing a bad accident.   Biking      
Stage Race - A bike race held over successive days with a different course each day. Stage races often feature a combination of long road races, a criterium and a time trial. The rider with the lowest total time (or accumulated points) after completion of all the stages wins the overall race.   Biking      
Staggered Start - A type of start that has the skiers leaving the starting line at various set intervals. The skier with the best over-all time wins.         Cross-Country Skiing
Stagiaire - A young rider given the chance to try out with a professional team for a few months at the end of a season.   Biking      
Stalking - Creeping up on a fish as to not surprise or disturb it.     Fishing    
Stand Still - A sprint manoeuvre in which neither rider wishes to lead, resulting in both remaining motionless and balancing on the track for a maximum of three minutes.   Biking      
Standing Line - Two lines that are joined together when tying the tag ends into a knot.     Fishing    
Standing Start - A race where the rider starts from a standstill.   Biking      
Standover Height – The distance from the ground to the top of the top tube. To find your ideal standover height, you should be able to stand over the top tube with your feet flat on the ground. There should be no more than a few inches of clearance between you and the top tube.   Biking      
Starting Block - The device that holds a bicycle at the starting line until the starting signal. This allows the riders to have their feet in the toe strap on the pedals with out having to balance. It also provides a fair start for all racers.   Biking      
Static Friction - The amount of friction between two objects (like ski and snow) that are in contact but are stationary. The friction between a moving ski and the snow is known as dynamic friction. Skiing        
Stayer - A track racer whose pace is determined by a motorized pacecar.   Biking      
Steelhead - A migratory rainbow trout. Native to the Pacific Ocean but are now found in some tributaries in North America's Great Lakes.     Fishing    
Steerer Tube - The of a fork that inserts into a frame's headtube and held in place by the headset bearings.   Biking      
Steering - Turning a ski by applying weight Skiing        
Stem - The component that connects the fork's steerer tube to the handlebars and allows the rider to steer the bicycle.   Biking      
Stem Christie - A turn that starts with a snowplow, wedge or stem and finishes with a christie or parallel turn. An advanced snowplow turn. Skiing        
Step Up - Taking a definitive step up while moving on a traverse from the inside edge of the downhill ski to the outside edge of the uphill ski. Similar to lateral projection. Skiing        
Stick Wax - Wax that is applied in a crayonlike fashion. Waxes are color-coded by the brand to adapt to anything from sub-zero to freezing-level snow. Primarily used on fresh snow and sharp crystals.         Cross-Country Skiing
Stock Fish - Fish that are reared in captivity and stocked into fisheries.     Fishing    
Stoker - The person who sits in the back of a tandem bicycle.   Biking      
Stonefly - An aquatic insect found throughout North America that generally requires higher water quality than most fish, including trout. It varies in size, but can reach two inches in length.     Fishing    
Straight Block - A cassette with cogs that increase in size in one-tooth increments.   Biking      
Straight-Lining - ( See Schussing) Skiing        
Streamer Flies - An American word for the British term "Lure." It describes flies that imitate small swimming fish.     Fishing    
Streamer - A fly classically made of long, soft feathers or animal hair (like bucktail) to imitate a bait fish, leech or other non-insect . Modern streamers are made of many synthetic materials, including metallic film and even epoxy.     Fishing    
Strike - The action of a fish trying to eat a fly. Also, refers to the movement of the rod a fly angler makes to set the hook.     Fishing    
Strike Indicator - A floating object placed on the leader or end of the fly line to "indicate" the take of the fly by a fish, or to indicate the path of the drift of the fly; used when nymph fishing with a slack line and are very effective. They are made from materials like floating putty, poly yarn or foam.     Fishing    
Strike - To tighten the line to set the hook when a fish bites, usually by raising the rod tip or lifting the rod.     Fishing    
Strip - The term used to describe taking in the line by hand, as opposed to reeling it in, as to stimulate a living insect or bait fish.     Fishing    
Stripping Guide - The guide nearest the reel on a fly rod; usually more substantial and larger in diameter than snake guides near the tip. When bringing in the fly, the line is pulled over this guide with a fair amount a force. Some rods have two stripping guides, with the larger being near the reel.     Fishing    
Style - The art of smooth, good-looking skiing or snowboarding. Skiing        
Suboperculum - In bony fish, the rear lower bone of the gill cover.     Fishing    
Super D - A hybrid mountain bike gravity event that adds distance and climbing in addition to the typical features of a downhill or dual slalom.   Biking      
Super G - The fastest discipline in Alpine racing. Similar to Giant Slalom but with even fewer turns to negotiate allowing higher speeds. Skiing        
Superpipe - A larger version of a regular halfpipe; walls in a superpipe can measure up to 22 feet. Skiing        
Suppleness - A quality of highly conditioned leg muscles that allows a rider to pedal at high cadence with smoothness and power. Also known by the French term, souplesse.   Biking      
Supracleithrum - A bone at the upper rear of the skull of a fish that helps support the pectoral fin.     Fishing    
Surf -A motion that allows riders to cruise through the peloton without hitting the wind and thus pedaling with minimal effort. Surfing implies the rider is navigating through the pack with the ease and grace of a surfer on wave.   Biking      
Surface Film - The elastic-like film on the surface of water, which is created by surface tension.     Fishing    
Surface Lifts - Lifts that pull skiers up a slope along the ground as opposed to in the air. (See Rope Tow, Poma or Magic Carpet) Skiing        
Surface Tension - The natural tendency of water's surface (and other liquids) to behave like an elastic sheet. Surface tension is caused by forces acting between the water molecules: molecules at the surface are more strongly attracted to each other and the molecules below them, than they are to the air molecules above them.     Fishing    
Surgeon's Knot - A common and strong knot used to tie two lengths of monofilament together; the lines may be of dissimilar diameters.     Fishing    
Suspension - A mechanism used to absorb and decrease the impact on either the front or rear wheel of a bicycle.   Biking      
Sweeper - A wide turn.   Biking      
Swim - The stretch of a river, or the part of a pond or lake, that is being fished in at a particular time.     Fishing    
Switchback - A tight, zigzag turn on the face of a mountain, either uphill or downhill.   Biking      
Switching - Occurs during attacks and sprints when a rider "cuts" you up and dives at your front wheel.   Biking      
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T Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Tag - The short, thick tail on an artificial fly, generally made out of silk or colored filaments of nylon. (See Standing Line)     Fishing    
Tag End - (See Tag)     Fishing    
Tail - Part of the fly, usually constructed of fine feather or hair, on the end of the hook.     Fishing    
Tail Gunning - The last rider in the peloton. Usually intentional, a rider with good bike handling skills and fitness can tail gun early in a race knowing that she can move up later. Also refers to the misery of barely hanging on at the back of the race.   Biking      
Tail Out - The lower end of a pool where it becomes shallow again.     Fishing    
Tail - The back of a ski. Skiing        
Tailing - Refers to the behavior of fish in shallow water where it is possible to see the caudal fins as they feed. Tailing fih generally signal the possibility of getting strikes by the proper presentation of the right fly.     Fishing    
Tailwater - The downstream section of a river or stream found below a large, man-made dam. The most famous and productive tailwaters are from bottom-discharge dams, making the water relatively cold and constant in temperature.     Fishing    
Take a Flyer - To suddenly sprint away from a group. (See Flyer)   Biking      
Take a Pull - (See Pull)   Biking      
Take - When a fish picks up or grabs the bait or lure.     Fishing    
Tandem Fly - A fly consisting of two or more in line hooks connected by a short length of line.     Fishing    
Tandem - A bicycle that has two riders. The rider in the front of the bike is in control of the bike.   Biking      
Taper - The narrowing in diameter, from butt to tip, of a rod, and the narrowing of the end section of a fly line. The rate of taper determines the action of the rod or line.     Fishing    
Tapered Leader - A leader made of monofilament and used for fly fishing; the back or butt section of the leader is of a diameter nearly as large as the fly line, then becomes progressively smaller in diameter as you approach the tip end (See Knotless Tapered Leader, Knotted Leader or Tippet)     Fishing    
Tarpon Flies - A smaller, saltwater-based fly used to catch Tarpon. (See Keys Style, Seducers or Whistlers)     Fishing    
T-Bar - A T-shaped surface lift on which two skiers balance in sitting positions and are pulled to the top. Skiing        
Team Captain - A member of the team that direct the riders' strategy during a race; usually the most seasoned rider in the team.   Biking      
Team Leader - A rider who is supported by the team in an effort to win a stage or race.   Biking      
Team Pursuit - A track race in which two teams of four riders start on opposite sides of the track, teams work together to try to finish as a team in the fastest time.   Biking      
Team Sprint - (See Olympic Sprint)   Biking      
Technical - Section of trail with many obstacles for the rider to navigate.   Biking      
Telemark Skiing – A hybrid of Nordic (cross country) Skiing and Alpine (downhill) Skiing, with detached heels a distinctive turn with the inside knee bent so that the outside ski is making the turn. Sometimes called “free heel skiing.” Skiing        
Tempo - Pace or cadence.   Biking      
Terminal Tackle - Tackle, including the hook or lure, attached to the end of the reel line.     Fishing    
Terrain Park - A freestyle zone roped off from other downhill runs and filled with jumps, rails, boxes, and other obstacles. Parks can also include a halfpipe. Skiing        
Terrestrial Insect - Insects that dwell on land and breathe air, including grasshoppers, crickets, ants, beetles, and leaf worms.     Fishing    
Tester - A time trialist who doesn’t ride the road (road race).   Biking      
The Tuck - Classic aerodynamic position adopted by racers to gain maximum speed, and by beginners going at ten miles an hour but feeling like downhill racers. Skiing        
Thorax - Front portion of an insect body, to which the wings and legs are attached. Normally associated with nymphs, however can be a part of the fly, mainly constructed with dubbing.     Fishing    
Three-Pin - A traditional, stable binding/boot system, usually used in backcountry touring, classic touring and telemarking.         Cross-Country Skiing
Threshold - (See Functional Threshold)   Biking      
Through-and-Off - Type of paceline where each rider pulls off as soon as they reach the front.   Biking      
Throw the Bike - Racing technique in which a rider shoves the bike ahead of his or her body, gaining several inches at the finish line, in hopes of winning a close sprint.   Biking      
TIG Welding (Tungsten Inert Gas Welding) - Electric arc welding with an inert gas to prevent oxidation. Most bicycle frames are assembled this way.   Biking      
Tight Loop - (See Narrow Loop).     Fishing    
Tighten - Rising the rod tip quickly to straighten the line and apply tension to it, in order to sink the hook into the mouth of a taking fish.     Fishing    
Tilt fishing - A technique used in ice fishing, also known as tip-up fishing.     Fishing    
Time Cut - On each stage all riders who do not finish within a certain percentage of the winner's time do not remain in the race for the following stages.   Biking      
Time Trial (TT) - Race against the clock in which individual riders start at set intervals and cannot give or receive a Draft.   Biking      
Timing Line - Line on a track where timing begins for flying start events.   Biking      
Tinsel - A metallic filament used in fly tying, often as ribbing or for fly bodies, to add shine to flies.     Fishing    
Tip section - Top section of a fly rod, smallest in diameter and furthest from the rod grip.     Fishing    
Tippet - Terminal segment of monofilament tied on the end of a leader and connected to the fly.     Fishing    
Tip-Top - A guide for the fly line with a small cylinder attached that fits over the end of the fly rod.     Fishing    
Tire Lever - Plastic tool used to pry a clincher tire off of the bead.   Biking      
Toe Strap, Toe Clip - Holds a foot in place on a pedal.   Biking      
Tooth - The protrusion on a cog or chainring that engages with the chain.   Biking      
Top Pull Front Derailleur - Front Derailleur activated by a cable that runs across the top tube and pulls from above.   Biking      
Top Tube - Tube connecting the head tube to the seat cluster.   Biking      
Tops - The flat part on a drop handlebar, between the brake levers where the stem attaches. "Riding on the tops” means riding with your hands on this flat middle section of the handle bars.   Biking      
Torque – Amount a ski will twist along its length. Generally stiffer torque makes for higher performance. Skiing        
Tour de France - A stage race that takes place over 24 one day stages, the riders ride 3400 kilometers (2142 miles).   Biking      
Touring Bike – Built with a strong frame for carrying racks and panniers full of gear for a long ride.   Biking      
Touring - Long distances bike rides that usually last more than one day and possibly for multiple weeks.   Biking      
Track - (See Velodrome)   Biking      
Track Bike - Bicycle with a fixed (single speed) gear and no brakes, built this way to be as light as possible, or to be as hipster as possible.   Biking      
Track Skiing - Nordic skiing on machine groomed snow.         Cross-Country Skiing
Track Stand - Balance on a bicycle without moving.   Biking      
Tracked Out - Describes a slope of snow that has been ridden over repeatedly and is now covered in tracks. Skiing        
Trail - Prepared route down a mountainside in North America. Known in Europe as Piste. Skiing        
Trail Marking Signs - Signs posted along trails, indicating direction and distance.         Cross-Country Skiing
Trailing Shuck - Piece of synthetic yarn tied to the back of a fly to imitate a case being shed from an emerging insect.     Fishing    
Train - Fast moving paceline of riders.   Biking      
Trainer - Device that clamps onto and raises the rear wheel to provide resistance, allowing a rider to pedal in place for training purposes.   Biking      
Training Effect - The result of exercise done with a duration and an intensity sufficient to bring about positive physiological changes.   Biking      
Tram - Large aerial lift, the bus-size cabins can hold more than 100 passengers, and are most often used to carry passengers over long vertical distances. Skiing        
Transition -The part of a halfpipe between the vertical walls and the flat floor, also know as Trannies. Skiing        
Travel - The amount of movement within a suspension system, the maximum distance a fork or rear shock can compress.   Biking      
Traverse - Ski across the mountain more or less horizontally. Skiing        
Tree Line - Altitude that is the edge of the habitat within which trees are capable of growing, usually related to temperature and moisture related limitations. This line varies from one location to the next. Skiing        
Tree skiing - Skiing through the trees. Skiing        
Tree Well - Hollow space formed around the base of trees after heavy snowfalls, can present danger of a potentially fatal fall for skiers. Skiing        
Trials Bike - Type of bicycle used for Trials competitions.   Biking      
Trials – Competitive event when cyclists ride special bikes around an obstacle course with the object of never touching their feet to the ground. Also known as Observed Trials.   Biking      
Triangle Taper - A special taper profile to a fly line, with 40 feet of continuous taper and a thin running line, particularly useful for roll casts.     Fishing    
Triple Crank - A crankset with three chain rings, most common on mountain bikes.   Biking      
Troll -Towing a fly behind a boat.     Fishing    
Trout Unlimited - Non-profit organization dedicated to protecting and improving trout fisheries, with an emphasis toward wild trout.     Fishing    
Truing a Wheel - Making a wheel truly round by adjusting the spoke tension.   Biking      
Truing Stand - A piece of equipment that holds and measures a wheel while it's being trued.   Biking      
TTT - Team Time Trial.   Biking      
Tube Fly - An artificial fly made of a metal or plastic tube dressed with feathers, hair, or other materials and threaded onto the line.     Fishing    
Tubeless Tires - Tires without tubes that mount onto special rims.   Biking      
Tubular Cement - Cement used to glue a tubular tire to the rim.   Biking      
Tubular Tire – High performance racing tire with extended casings sewn around the inner tube and glued to a low profile rim. Tubulars offer weight and strength advantages, but are hard to fix and maintain. (See Sew-Ups)   Biking      
Tuck, Tucked, Full Tuck - A riding position with the head and torso low, back flat, and arms in close for best aerodynamics and maximum speed.   Biking      
Turkey - Unskilled cyclist.   Biking      
Turn Over - How the fly line and leader straighten out at the completion of the cast.     Fishing    
Turnaround - Point where the riders switch direction on an out and back time trial course.   Biking      
Turning Radius - The circle that a pair of skis or a snowboard can make turning on edge. The more dramatic the sidecut, the tighter the turning radius. Skiing        
Twin Tip - Skis with both the tip and the tail turned up at the end, making for easier to backward (switch) riding and smooth handling of powder. Skiing        
Twitchy - A bicycle responding very quickly to the rider.   Biking      
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U Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
U23 - Race category for men 19 to 22 years of age.   Biking      
UCI (Union Cycliste Internationale) - World governing body of bicycle racing, recognized by the International Olympic Committee, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.   Biking      
Ultra Cycling - Longest endurance cycling events, also called ultramarathon.   Biking      
Ultramarathon Cycling Association - Informational organization that sanctions events and keeps records for ultra riders.   Biking      
Undercurrent - Flow of water beneath the surface, can be opposite the surface flow on stillwaters.     Fishing    
Unicycle - Cycle with one wheel.   Biking      
United States Cycling Federation (USCF) - Federation that sanctions bicycle races. - Cycle with one wheel.   Biking      
Unloading the Rod - Transferring the casting energy from the rod back into the fly line by unbending the rod.     Fishing    
Unobtanium - Bike equipment made from expensive, high tech material.   Biking      
Unweight - Momentarily lighten the weight on the bike through a combination of body movement and position, key to jumping over small obstacles.   Biking      
Unweighting – Taking weight off of a ski. Skiing        
Upgrade - Move to a higher racing category, for example from 3 to 2.   Biking      
Upshift - Shift into a higher gear, a smaller cog or larger chainring, for a gear ratio offering more resistance per pedal rotation.   Biking      
Upstream - Against the current of the stream or river.     Fishing    
Upwind - Into the wind.     Fishing    
Upwing Flies - The The Ephemeroptera order of flies, with nearly vertical wings and two or three tails or setae.     Fishing    
USAC (USA Cycling) - the umbrella organization for American bicycle racing, affiliated with the UCI.   Biking      
USCF (United States Cycling Federation) - A division of USA Cycling that governs amateur road, cyclocross, and track racing in the U.S.   Biking      
USPRO (United States Professional Racing Organization) - A division of USA Cycling in charge of professional bicycle racing in the U.S.   Biking      
USSA (United States Ski Association) - National administrative organization and governing body for downhill and cross-country skiing in the United States.         Cross-Country Skiing
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V Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
V02max - Athletes’ maximum aerobic capacity, defined by the maximum amount of oxygen their bodies can use. A high VO2max usually indicates greater performance potential. Though V02max does have an upper genetic limit, it can be increased with training. It is expressed as an absolute in liters, or relative to body mass as milliliters per kilogram.   Biking      
V1 - Using double poling with a skating technique, the skier will use their poles once every two steps.         Cross-Country Skiing
V2 - Similar to V1 except the skier poles twice every two steps.         Cross-Country Skiing
Valve - Protrudes through the rim and permits inflation of the inner tube.   Biking      
Variant - A dry fly variety wound hackles that are much larger than normally recommended. It is tied generally the as conventional patterns.     Fishing    
Vas deferens - The duct that carries sperm from the testis of a spawning male fish.     Fishing    
Velo - French for "bicycle."   Biking      
Velodrome - Oval shaped bicycle racing track made of wood or concrete with banked sides.   Biking      
Vent - The anus of a fish, also the orifice through which a spawning male fish discharges his milt and through which a spawning female fish lays her eggs (or a female Viviparous Fish gives birth).     Fishing    
Ventral Fins - (See Pelvic Fins)   Biking      
Vertebra - An individual segment of the backbone.   Biking      
Vertebrate - A creature with a backbone, such as a fish or a mammal.     Fishing    
Vertical - The distance between the base and the summit of a mountain, measured vertically.         Cross-Country Skiing
Vest - A fly fisher's wearable tackle box, particularly important in wading situations.     Fishing    
Vise - A tool used by fly tiers to hold the hook secure as they attach the thread, feathers and fur to construct the fly.     Fishing    
Viviparous Fish - Fish whose eggs are fertilized and hatched within the female's body. Unlike those of Ovoviviparous Fish, the developing embryos receive nourishment from the mother. Some sharks and some bony fish, such as surf perch, are Viviparous.     Fishing    
VO - Maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed during all out exertion, a key indicator of an athlete’s potential in cycling and other aerobic sports, largely genetically determined but can be somewhat improved by training.   Biking      
Vomerine Teeth - Teeth on the vomer bone at the front of the roof of the mouth of bony fish.     Fishing    
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W Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Wader Belt - An adjustable belt cinched near the top of chest waders to keep water out, particularly recommended for preventing waders from filling up with water in the event of a fall.     Fishing    
Waders - Tall waterproof boots used in fishing. The boot foot variety has boots built in whereas the stocking foot variety requires the use of a pair of wading shoes but provides better support and traction.     Fishing    
Waders - Footed outerwear pants constructed of latex, neoprene, Gortex or other waterproof material to keep anglers dry when they wade in water. They can be found in three lengths: hip waders, waist-high waders and chest waders.     Fishing    
Wading Shoes - Built specifically to be worn over stocking foot waders; may be made of leather, nylon, or other synthetic materials.     Fishing    
Wading Shoes or Boots - Worn with stocking foot waders, generally having felt soles and a more comfortable fit than the boot portions of boot foot waders.     Fishing    
Wading Staff - A walking stick used to provide stability to a wading fly angler when moving through fast or deep water. Some fold up to be kept in a fishing vest pocket until needed.     Fishing    
Waist Width - Measurement of the narrowest portion across a ski or snowboard, usually the middle of the sidecut. Skiing        
Wake Fly - A dry fly that attracts fish by creating a splashy wake when pulled across or through the water's surface.     Fishing    
Warm Up - The process of gradually increasing exercise intensity to increase blood flow in the muscles to encourage optimal performance.   Biking      
Waterbar - A sharp sided trench that crisscrosses a downward slope.   Biking      
Watt - Measures power produced, describes how much force is being applied to pedals.   Biking      
Wax Pocket - Also called the kick zone, the central section of a Nordic cambered ski is slightly raised off of the snow's surface by its curvature when it is not weighted, and grips the snow when the skier's weight is on it and the ski isn’t moving. On non-wax skis, this is where the grip pattern is located.         Cross-Country Skiing
Wax – Used on the base of skis to keep them gliding and gripping the snow efficiently. Kick Wax (also known as Grip Wax) is applied exclusively to the middle third of classic skis. Glide Wax is used on the tips and tails of classic skis and on the entire length of skating skis.         Cross-Country Skiing
Wax - Used on the base of skis and snowboards to keep them gliding smoothly over snow. New skis and snowboards typically come waxed, but should be tuned after several uses. Skiing        
Waxable Skis - Any cross country ski that does not have grip patterns carved or molded into its base, that can be treated with performance enhancing waxes to improve grip and or glide.         Cross-Country Skiing
Waxless Skis - A type of cross-country ski designed with a fish scale or crosshatch pattern on the base so that it can grip the snow without the need for wax on the middle third of the base. Waxless skis do benefit from periodic glide waxing on their tips and tails to condition the P-Tex base material and to improve gliding performance. Skiing        
Wedge Turn - (See Snowplow)         Cross-Country Skiing
Weedguard - Especially popular for underwater warm water flies, this is a piece of stiff monofilament or light wire attached from the top of the hook and extending in front of the hook point and bend to the hook eye. When properly attached, it reduces the likelihood of a fly picking up weeds without deterring the hooking of a fish.     Fishing    
Weenie Gear - (See Granny Gear)   Biking      
Weight forward (WF) - An easy, versatile type of fly line with most of its weight in the first thirty feet of line. The large section of this type of line is called the line belly, with a long tapering of the line toward the front and a short tapering of it back to a thinner running line.     Fishing    
WEL - Womens elite, a UCI term   Biking      
Wet Fly Swing - Casting the fly downstream and across, then swiming it across the current. The typical presentation method for fishing a wet fly, commonly used to imitate swimming mayflies, emerging caddis, and small fish.     Fishing    
Wet Fly - Any fly that is presented to the fish below the surface of the water, usually tied with soft, swept back hackle and with backward sloping insect like wings. This type of fly is not as popular as it once was, and has been largely superceded by Nymphs.     Fishing    
Wheel Suck - (See Draft)   Biking      
Wheel - Includes the tire, tube, rim, spokes, and hub.   Biking      
Wheelbase - The distance between the front and rear wheels, a measurement made from the center of one wheel to center of the other.   Biking      
Wheelie - Elevating the front wheel and riding on the rear wheel only.   Biking      
Wheels In, Wheels Out - When riders are limited to the wheels they put into the support car. If a cyclist gets a flat during a race then he only gets a new wheel if he has one in the support car.   Biking      
Wheel Sucker - A cyclist who drafts behind others but doesn't take a turn breaking the wind at the front.   Biking      
Whip Finisher - A tool used that helps a fly tier lay down a smooth and compact head of the fly, making whip finishing quick and easy.     Fishing    
Whip - An official responsible for making sure that all the riders take their starting positions at the correct time.   Biking      
Whistler Flies - With large bead chain eyes, body, and wings, these are used after dark, in deep water, or where visibility is not very good. The bulkiness causes the fly to dip every time the angler pauses on the retrieve, generating vibrations so that Tarpon and other species can find it. Developed by American West Coast Fly fisherman Dan Blanton.     Fishing    
White Out - When heavy snowfall and or fog causes visibility to drop to almost nothing. Skiing        
Width - The distance from one edge of a ski to the other edge, measured at the ski's waist (the narrowest part). Generally, wider skis are more appropriate for use in powder and narrower skis are more appropriate for use on groomed runs.         Cross-Country Skiing
Wind Hold - Chair lifts stop running because of dangerously high winds. Skiing        
Wind Knots - Loops formed in the fishing line from novice casting, made worse by casting in the wind, which can cause these loops to become overhand knots, which greatly reduce the breaking strength of the leader.     Fishing    
Wind Packed - Description of snow compressed by the wind blowing across it's surface. Skiing        
Wind Up - Steady acceleration to an all out effort.   Biking      
Windchill - The effect of air moving across the skin, making the temperature seem colder than it actually is. Movement creates a windchill even on a calm day.   Biking      
Winding - Wraps of thread used to attach the snake guides and stripping guides on the fly rod blank.     Fishing    
Windward - In the direction that the wind is blowing.     Fishing    
Wipe Out - A stupendous crash. Skiing        
WJU - Womens juniors, a UCI term.   Biking      
Wobbling - A freshwater spinning technique using a lure or a small dead fish mounted on treble hooks for bait that is cast a long way out and retrieved in an erratic fashion with side to side movements of the rod tip and varried speed.     Fishing    
Wonk - A person or bike that does not function properly.   Biking      
Work - To take a turn breaking the wind, riding at the front of a peloton, paceline, or breakaway. If a rider does no work then he is a Wheel Sucker.   Biking      
World Cup - An annual series of international ski races, the highest level of cross country skiing competition outside of the World Championships and the Olympics.         Cross-Country Skiing
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X Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
X Diameter - A system that indicates the diameter of tippet and leader material, in which 0X (zero X) represents the largest diameter (.011 in) and 8X (.003 in) represents a small, light diameter. To calculate the actual diameter of "4X" or any "X" number, subtract the numeral from the number 11. The result is the diameter in thousandths of an inch. For example, to find the diameter of 4X material, subtract 4 from 11 (11 - 4 = 7) thus the diameter is .007". Common sizes are 1X (.01 in), 2X (.009 in), 3X (.008 in), 4X (.007 in), 5X (.006 in), 6X (.005 in). The strength of the monofilament diameter varies with the material.     Fishing    
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Y Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Yard Sale - A crash in which a skier’s or snowboarder’s gear ends up scattered all over the ground, like items in a yard sale. Skiing        
Yellow Jersey - Worn by the general classification leader in the Tour de France.   Biking      
Yellow Jersey - (See Maillot Jaune)   Biking      
Yolk Sac - Membrane-covered food pouch on the belly of a newly hatched fish that nourishes the it until it can feed itself.     Fishing    
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z Skiing Biking Fishing Climbing Cross-Country Skiing
Zinger - A retractable device useful for hanging items such as nippers off your vest to keep them out of the way when you're not using them.     Fishing    
Z-Lon - Trade name for a synthetic yarn used in making carpeting. Can be used for many fly tying purposes including nymph bodies, spent wings, and trailing shucks.     Fishing    
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